File Name: role and functions of ngos .zip
Any kind of private organization, independent from government control, can be classified as NGO, provided it is not for profit.
Organizations which are independent of government involvement  are known as non-governmental organizations or non-government organizations ,  with NGO as an acronym. NGOs are usually nonprofit organizations , and many of them are active in humanitarianism or the social sciences. Surveys indicate that NGOs have a high degree of public trust , which can make them a useful proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders. Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.
Russia had about , NGOs in NGOs are classified by orientation and level of operation; orientation refers to the type of activities an NGO undertakes. Activities may include human rights, consumer protection , environmentalism, health, or development.
An NGO's level of operation indicates the scale at which an organization works: local, regional, national, or international. Other acronyms include: [ citation needed ]. NGOs further the political or social goals of their members or founders : improving the natural environment , encouraging the observance of human rights , improving the welfare of the disadvantaged, or representing a corporate agenda. Their goals cover a wide range of issues. They mobilize resources to provide goods and services to people who have been affected by a natural disaster; they drive change, and partner with other organizations to tackle problems and address human needs.
NGOs vary by method; some are primarily advocacy groups , and others conduct programs and activities. Oxfam , concerned with poverty alleviation, may provide needy people with the equipment and skills to obtain food and drinking water ; the Forum for Fact-finding Documentation and Advocacy FFDA helps provide legal assistance to victims of human-rights abuses.
The Afghanistan Information Management Services provide specialized technical products and services to support development activities implemented on the ground by other organizations. Management techniques are crucial to project success.
Operational NGOs seek to "achieve small-scale change directly through projects",  mobilizing financial resources, materials, and volunteers to create local programs. They hold large-scale fundraising events and may apply to governments and organizations for grants or contracts to raise money for projects. Operational NGOs often have a hierarchical structure; their headquarters are staffed by professionals who plan projects, create budgets, keep accounts, and report to and communicate with operational fieldworkers on projects.
Operational NGOs may be subdivided into relief or development organizations, service-delivery or participatory, religious or secular, and public or private. Although operational NGOs may be community-based, many are national or international. The defining activity of an operational NGO is the implementation of projects. Campaigning NGOs seek to "achieve large-scale change promoted indirectly through the influence of the political system.
Campaigning NGOs must plan and host demonstrations and events which will attract media, their defining activity. NGOs may conduct both activities. Operational NGOs will use campaigning techniques if they face issues in the field which could be remedied by policy change, and campaigning NGOs such as human-rights organizations often have programs which assist individual victims for whom they are trying to advocacate.
Non-governmental organisations need healthy public relations to meet their goals, and use sophisticated public-relations campaigns to raise funds and deal with governments. Interest groups may be politically important, influencing social and political outcomes. Some NGOs rely on paid staff; others are based on volunteers. Although many NGOs use international staff in developing countries, others rely on local employees or volunteers.
Foreign staff may satisfy a donor who wants to see the supported project managed by a person from an industrialized country. The expertise of these employees or volunteers may be counterbalanced by several factors: the cost of foreigners is typically higher, they have no grassroots connections in the country, and local expertise may be undervalued. NGOs are usually funded by donations, but some avoid formal funding and are run by volunteers.
NGOs may have charitable status, or may be tax-exempt in recognition of their social purposes. Others may be fronts for political, religious, or other interests. Since the end of World War II , NGOs have had an increased role in international development ,  particularly in the fields of humanitarian assistance and poverty alleviation.
Funding sources include membership dues, the sale of goods and services, grants from international institutions or national governments, and private donations. Government funding of NGOs is controversial, since "the whole point of humanitarian intervention was precise that NGOs and civil society had both a right and an obligation to respond with acts of aid and solidarity to people in need or being subjected to repression or want by the forces that controlled them, whatever the governments concerned might think about the matter.
Overhead is the amount of money spent on running an NGO, rather than on projects. An NGO's percentage of its overall budget spent on overhead is often used to judge it; less than four percent is considered good. A sole focus on overhead, however, can be counterproductive. In a March report on United Nations reform priorities, former UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan favored international humanitarian intervention as the responsibility to protect  citizens from ethnic cleansing, genocide, and crimes against humanity.
After that report, the Canadian government launched its Responsibility to Protect R2P  project outlining the issue of humanitarian intervention.
The R2P project has wide applications, and among its more controversial has been the Canadian government's use of R2P to justify its intervention in the coup in Haiti.
Large corporations have increased their corporate social responsibility departments to preempt NGO campaigns against corporate practices.
Department of Defense Directive In compliance with international law , the department has developed a capacity to improve essential services in areas of conflict such as Iraq where customary lead agencies like the State Department and USAID have difficulty operating. International Health cultivates collaborative, arm's-length relationships with NGOs, recognizing their independence, expertise, and honest-broker status.
International non-governmental organizations date back to at least the late 18th century,   and there were an estimated 1, NGOs by The role of NGOs and other "major groups" in sustainable development was recognized in Chapter 27  of Agenda According to the UN, an NGO is a private, not-for-profit organization which is independent of government control and is not merely an opposition political party.
The rapid development of the non-governmental sector occurred in Western countries as a result of the restructuring of the welfare state. Globalization of that process occurred after the fall of the communist system, and was an important part of the Washington Consensus.
Twentieth-century globalization increased the importance of NGOs. International treaties and organizations, such as the World Trade Organization , focused on capitalist interests. To counterbalance this trend, NGOs emphasize humanitarian issues , development aid , and sustainable development. Transnational NGO networking has become extensive. Although NGOs are subject to national laws and practices, four main groups may be found worldwide: . The question whether a public project should be owned by an NGO or by the government has been studied in economics using the tools of the incomplete contracting theory.
According to this theory, not every detail of a relationship between decision makers can be contractually specified. Hence, in the future the parties will bargain with each other to adapt their relationship to changing circumstances. In the context of private firms, Hart has shown that the party with the more important investment task should be owner. However, the general validity of this argument has been questioned by follow-up research.
In particular, ownership by the party with the larger valuation need not be optimal when the public good is partially excludable Francesconi and Muthoo, ,  when both NGO and government may be indispensable Halonen-Akatwijuka, ,  when the NGO and the government have different bargaining powers Schmitz, ,  or when there are bargaining frictions Schmitz, Service-delivery NGOs provide public goods and services which governments of developing countries are unable to provide due to a lack of resources.
They may be contractors or collaborate with government agencies to reduce the cost of public goods. Capacity-building NGOs affect "culture, structure, projects and daily operations". Movement NGOs mobilize the public and coordinate large-scale collective activities to advance an activist agenda. Since the end of the Cold War , more NGOs in developed countries have pursued international outreach; involved in local and national social resistance, they have influenced domestic policy change in the developing world.
Track II diplomacy or dialogue is transnational coordination by non-official members of the government, including epistemic communities and former policymakers or analysts.
It aims to help policymakers and policy analysts reach a common solution through unofficial discussions. Unlike official diplomacy, conducted by government officials, diplomats, and elected leaders, Track II diplomacy involves experts, scientists, professors and other figures who are not part of government affairs.
Tanzanian author and academic Issa G. Shivji writes that despite the good intentions of NGO leaders and activists, he is critical of the "objective effects of actions, regardless of their intentions". In his study of NGO involvement in Mozambique , James Pfeiffer addresses their negative effects on the country's health.
According to Pfeiffer, NGOs in Mozambique have "fragmented the local health system, undermined local control of health programs, and contributed to growing local social inequality". This undermines local primary-healthcare efforts, and removes the government's ability to maintain agency over its health sector.
The best of them According to Vijay Prashad , since the s "the World Bank, under Robert McNamara, championed the NGO as an alternative to the state, leaving intact global and regional relations of power and production. Political philosopher Peter Hallward has called them an aristocratic form of politics,  noting that ActionAid and Christian Aid "effectively condoned the [ US-backed] coup" against an elected government in Haiti and are the "humanitarian face of imperialism".
They have been accused of being designed by, and used as extensions of, the foreign-policy instruments of some Western countries and groups of countries. But some, mostly in the US, are still exporting the ideologies of their backers.
NGOs have been accused of using misinformation in their campaigns out of self-interest. According to Doug Parr of Greenpeace , there had been "a tendency among our critics to say that science is the only decision-making tool They have been questioned as "too much of a good thing". Resource allocation and outsourcing to local organizations in international-development projects incurs expenses for an NGO, lessening the resources and money available to the intended beneficiaries.
NGO missions tend to be paternalistic, as well as expensive. Legitimacy, an important asset of an NGO, is its perception as an "independent voice". And when we realize that INGOs hardly ever come face to face with the people whose interests and problems they represent, or that they are not accountable to the people they represent, matters become even more troublesome.
An NGO's funding affects its legitimacy, and they have become increasingly dependent on a limited number of donors. NGOs have been challenged as not representing the needs of the developing world, diminishing the "Southern voice" and preserving the North—South divide. The scale and variety of activities in which NGOs participate have grown rapidly since , and particularly since Centralizing NGOs, particularly at the international level, can assign a common theme or set of goals.
It may also be advantageous to decentralize an NGO, increasing its chances of responding flexibly and effectively to local issues by implementing projects which are modest in scale, easily monitored, produce immediate benefits, and where all involved know that corruption will be punished.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see NGO disambiguation. Organization independent of any government, usually created to aid those in need or similar. See also: Foreign funding of NGOs. Today we celebrate the World NGO Day , we celebrate the key civil society's contribution to public space and their unique ability to give voice to those who would have went [sic] otherwise unheard.
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Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Welmond and J. Welmond , J. Wolf Published Political Science. During the last decade non-governmental organizations NGOs have been increasingly called upon to implement development programs.
Non Governmental Organisations, or NGOs, as they are called in common parlance, are organisations which are involved in carrying out a wide range of activities for the benefit of underprivileged people and the society at large. As the name suggests, NGOs work independently, without any financial aid of the government although they may work in close coordination with the government agencies for executing their projects. NGOs take up and execute projects to promote welfare of the community they work with.
Organizations which are independent of government involvement  are known as non-governmental organizations or non-government organizations ,  with NGO as an acronym. NGOs are usually nonprofit organizations , and many of them are active in humanitarianism or the social sciences. Surveys indicate that NGOs have a high degree of public trust , which can make them a useful proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders. Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information. Russia had about , NGOs in
Protecting wildlife and endangered species, for example, can be the main mission of a specific NGO. Other common names are listed in the chart below. Meaning and functions of NGOs in Nigeria.
Чатрукьян некоторое время смотрел на него, лишившись дара речи, а потом бегом направился прочь из шифровалки. Стратмор повернулся и с удивлением увидел Хейла. Сьюзан поняла, в чем дело: все это время Хейл вел себя тихо, подозрительно тихо, поскольку отлично знал, что нет такой диагностики, в которой использовалась бы цепная мутация, тем более такая, которая занимала ТРАНСТЕКСТ уже восемнадцать часов. Хейл не проронил ни слова. Казалось, вспыхнувшая на его глазах перепалка абсолютно его не касается. Очевидно, Стратмор вдруг задумался: .
Хейла нигде не было. Тогда он вернулся в кабинет и прикрыл за собой дверь, затем заблокировал ее стулом, подошел к столу и достал что-то из выдвижного ящика. В тусклом свете мониторов Сьюзан увидела, что это, и побледнела. Он достал пистолет. Он выдвинул два стула на середину комнаты.
Отключение ТРАНСТЕКСТА было логичным шагом в случае возникновения чрезвычайной ситуации, а ведь тот был уверен, что в машину проник вирус. К несчастью, это был самый надежный способ собрать в шифровалке всех сотрудников Отдела обеспечения системной безопасности. После таких экстренных действий на главном коммутаторе раздавался сигнал общей тревоги. Проверку шифровалки службой безопасности Хейл допустить не. Он выбежал из помещения Третьего узла и направился к люку.
Ну, может, дошел какой-нибудь слушок. - Мидж, послушай. - Он засмеялся. - Попрыгунчик - древняя история. Стратмор дал маху. Но надо идти вперед, а не оглядываться все время .
В международном аэропорту Далласа девушку встретил шофер АНБ, доставивший ее в Форт-Мид. В тот год аналогичное приглашение получили еще сорок кандидатов. Двадцативосьмилетняя Сьюзан оказалась среди них младшей и к тому же единственной женщиной. Визит вылился в сплошной пиар и бесчисленные интеллектуальные тесты при минимуме информации по существу дела. Через неделю Сьюзан и еще шестерых пригласили. Сьюзан заколебалась, но все же поехала.
Сьюзан словно окаменела, ничего не понимая. Эхо выстрела слилось с царившим вокруг хаосом. Сознание гнало ее вперед, но ноги не слушались. Коммандер. Мгновение спустя она, спотыкаясь, карабкалась вверх по ступенькам, совершенно забыв о таящейся внизу опасности. Она двигалась вслепую, скользя на гладких ступеньках, и скопившаяся влага капала на нее дождем.
У нее была высокая стройная фигура с пышной грудью и по-юношески плоским животом. Дэвид шутил, что она может стать первой моделью для рекламы купальников, имеющей докторскую степень по прикладной математике и теории чисел. Через несколько месяцев оба начали подозревать, что обрели нечто такое, что может продлиться всю жизнь.
Внешняя окружность была затуманена и казалась почти прозрачной. - У нас имеется пять уровней защиты, - объяснял Джабба. - Главный бастион, два набора пакетных фильтров для Протокола передачи файлов, Х-одиннадцать, туннельный блок и, наконец, окно авторизации справа от проекта Трюфель. Внешний щит, исчезающий на наших глазах, - открытый главный компьютер.
Я найду свободную комнату и покажу вам Испанию с такой стороны, что вам будет что вспомнить, - И она сладко причмокнула губами. Беккер изобразил улыбку. - Я должен идти. Он извинился перед немцем за вторжение, в ответ на что тот скромно улыбнулся.
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