File Name: volts and amps in series and parallel circuits .zip
The amount of current in a series circuit is the same through any component in the circuit. This is because there is only one path for current flow in a series circuit. Because electric charge flows through conductors like marbles in a tube, the rate of flow marble speed at any point in the circuit tube at any specific point in time must be equal. From the way that the 9-volt battery is arranged, we can tell that the current in this circuit will flow in a clockwise direction, from point 1 to 2 to 3 to 4 and back to 1. However, we have one source of voltage and three resistances.
The amount of current in a series circuit is the same through any component in the circuit. This is because there is only one path for current flow in a series circuit. Because electric charge flows through conductors like marbles in a tube, the rate of flow marble speed at any point in the circuit tube at any specific point in time must be equal. From the way that the 9-volt battery is arranged, we can tell that the current in this circuit will flow in a clockwise direction, from point 1 to 2 to 3 to 4 and back to 1.
However, we have one source of voltage and three resistances. We can see this concept in action in the single resistor circuit example below.
With a single-battery, single-resistor circuit, we could easily calculate any quantity because they all applied to the same two points in the circuit:. Since points 1 and 2 are connected together with the wire of negligible resistance, as are points 3 and 4, we can say that point 1 is electrically common to point 2, and that point 3 is electrically common to point 4. Since we know we have 9 volts of electromotive force between points 1 and 4 directly across the battery , and since point 2 is common to point 1 and point 3 common to point 4, we must also have 9 volts between points 2 and 3 directly across the resistor.
In the three-resistor example circuit below, we know that we have 9 volts between points 1 and 4, which is the amount of electromotive force driving the current through the series combination of R 1 , R 2 , and R 3. So what can we do? The total resistance of any series circuit is equal to the sum of the individual resistances. This should make intuitive sense: the more resistors in series that the current must flow through, the more difficult it will be for the current to flow. Knowing this, we could redraw the circuit with a single equivalent resistor representing the series combination of R 1 , R 2 , and R 3 :.
Knowing that current is equal through all components of a series circuit and we just determined the current through the battery , we can go back to our original circuit schematic and note the current through each component:. Notice the voltage drops across each resistor, and how the sum of the voltage drops 1. The supply voltage in a series circuit is equal to the sum of the individual voltage drops.
However, the method we just used to analyze this simple series circuit can be streamlined for better understanding. You begin your analysis by filling in those elements of the table that are given to you from the beginning:.
The 9 volts of battery voltage is not applied directly across R 1 , R 2 , or R 3. In this case, we can use the series rule of resistances to determine a total resistance from the sum of individual resistances:. Just for fun, we can use a computer to analyze this very same circuit automatically. It will be a good way to verify our calculations and also become more familiar with computer analysis. First, we have to describe the circuit to the computer in a format recognizable by the software.
For clarity, I numbered the four corners of our example circuit 1 through 4. Now, I can enter several lines of text into a computer file describing the circuit in terms SPICE will understand, complete with a couple of extra lines of code directing the program to display voltage and current data for our viewing pleasure. This printout is telling us the battery voltage is 9 volts, and the voltage drops across R 1 , R 2 , and R 3 are 1. Voltage drops across any component in SPICE are referenced by the node numbers the component lies between, so v 1,2 is referencing the voltage between nodes 1 and 2 in the circuit, which are the points between which R 1 is located.
The order of node numbers is important: when SPICE outputs a figure for v 1,2 , it regards the polarity the same way as if we were holding a voltmeter with the red test lead on node 1 and the black test lead on node 2.
We also have a display showing current albeit with a negative value at 0. So our mathematical analysis has been vindicated by the computer. In summary, a series circuit is defined as having only one path through which current can flow. From this definition, three rules of series circuits follow: all components share the same current; resistances add to equal a larger, total resistance; and voltage drops add to equal a larger, total voltage.
All of these rules find root in the definition of a series circuit. If you understand that definition fully, then the rules are nothing more than footnotes to the definition. There is an error in the figure that demonstrates the current rule for series circuits.
Typo: the9-volt. Wrong or not updated diagram: The revised diagram is supposed have node 0 instead of node 4. In Partnership with Fujipoly. Don't have an AAC account? Create one now. Forgot your password? Click here. Latest Projects Education.
Textbook Simple Series Circuits. Home Textbook Vol. Resistance : The total resistance of any series circuit is equal to the sum of the individual resistances. Voltage : The supply voltage in a series circuit is equal to the sum of the individual voltage drops. Combining Multiple Resistors into an Equivalent Total Resistor This brings us to the second principle of series circuits: The total resistance of any series circuit is equal to the sum of the individual resistances.
This is the third principle of series circuits: The supply voltage in a series circuit is equal to the sum of the individual voltage drops. Published under the terms and conditions of the Design Science License. Log in to comment. Thank you for your comments, and good catch! We've updated the image. Load more comments. You May Also Like. Sign In Stay logged in Or sign in with. Continue to site.
Many "real life"circuits are a combination of elements in series and parallel. It is not possible to solve these circuits by direct application of these basic rules. However, adding some simple procedures for reducing the circuit to a simple series or parallel circuit will allow us to solve most circuits of interest. The basic procedure is to use a step-by-step process of replacing combinations of elements that are in simple series or parallel with the equivalent single resistance value. Rules for addition of resistance in series or parallel can be used to do this.
BIOLOGY. Investigation. Manual. Series and Parallel Circuits. PHYSICS students to understand how voltage and current are used in series and parallel.
Most circuits have more than one resistor. If several resistors are connected together and connected to a battery, the current supplied by the battery depends on the equivalent resistance of the circuit. The equivalent resistance of a combination of resistors depends on both their individual values and how they are connected. In a series circuit , the output current of the first resistor flows into the input of the second resistor; therefore, the current is the same in each resistor.
The first principle to understand about parallel circuits is that the voltage is equal across all components in the circuit. This is because there are only two sets of electrically common points in a parallel circuit, and the voltage measured between sets of common points must always be the same at any given time. Therefore, in the above circuit, the voltage across R 1 is equal to the voltage across R 2 which is equal to the voltage across R 3 which is equal to the voltage across the battery.
Exploring the similarities and differences between the two types of electrical circuits. After learning how to build series and parallel circuits, your students will use ammeters and voltmeters to compare voltage and current flow so they can understand the similarities and differences between the two types of electrical circuits. Demonstrate for your students how an ammeter needs to be connected in the path of the moving electrons, so it becomes part of the circuit.
Series Configuration Circuit.
An analogue for Ohm's law. Most circuits are not just a series or parallel circuit; most have resistors in parallel and in series. Super Teacher Worksheets - www.
Electric Current and : Series and Parallel Circuits. Series Circuits In a series circuit, devices are strung together one after another so that whatever current flows through one must flow through the other, each in turn. Solved examples with detailed answer description, explanation are given and it would be easy to understand.
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