File Name: legal technique and logic philippines.zip
An application of the theory of fuzzy sets to the mapping of gold mineralization potential in the Baguio gold mining district of the Philippines is described. Proximity to geological features is translated into fuzzy membership functions based upon qualitative and quantitative knowledge of spatial associations between known gold occurrences and geological features in the area.
Case law is the collection of past legal decisions written by courts and similar tribunals in the course of deciding cases, in which the law was analyzed using these cases to resolve ambiguities for deciding current cases. These past decisions are called "case law", or precedent. Stare decisis —a Latin phrase meaning "let the decision stand"—is the principle by which judges are bound to such past decisions. These judicial interpretations are distinguished from statutory law , which are codes enacted by legislative bodies, and regulatory law , which are established by executive agencies based on statutes. In some jurisdictions, case law can be applied to ongoing adjudication ; for example, criminal proceedings or family law. In common law countries including the United Kingdom , United States , Canada , Australia and New Zealand , the term case law is a near-exact synonym for common law. It is used for judicial decisions of selected appellate courts , courts of first instance , agency tribunals, and other bodies discharging adjudicatory functions.
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Classical Logic Traditional techniques, based on Aristotles works, for the analysis of deductive arguments. Modern Symbolic Logic Methods used by most deductive arguments. Probability The likelihood that some conclusion of an inductive argument is true. Sound An argument that is valid and has only true premises. Hypothetical or Conditional Proposition A type of compound proposition; It is false only when the antecedent is true and the consequent is false. Relations Between Truth and Validity: 1.
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Many legal scholars and practitioners have feared that to acknowledge that logic is central to law would risk a return to the rationalistic excesses of the formalistic jurisprudences that dominated nineteenth century legal thought. It was, after all, against that formalist tradition that Holmes wrote. And it was in spirited opposition to that tradition that members of the Legal Realist movement in America, as well as the Free Law movement in Europe, directed much of their energies early in the twentieth century. There is good reason to remain skeptical of overly rationalistic accounts of law and judicial practice.
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Back in our Legal Technique and Logic class, we were taught how to construct sentences properly. We were asked by our professor to look for several sentences from several jurisprudence and apply those that we learned to make it better. The results were as follows:. Choosing Words. Learn to avoid simplicity jargons.
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Иерархия допуска в банк данных была тщательно регламентирована; лица с допуском могли войти через Интернет. В зависимости от уровня допуска они попадали в те отсеки банка данных, которые соответствовали сфере их деятельности. - Поскольку мы связаны с Интернетом, - объяснял Джабба, - хакеры, иностранные правительства и акулы Фонда электронных границ кружат вокруг банка данных двадцать четыре часа в сутки, пытаясь проникнуть внутрь.