File Name: aspects of history and epic in ancient iran .zip
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Its sources have been within Greater Iran including present-day Iran , Iraq , Afghanistan , the Caucasus , and Turkey , regions of Central Asia such as Tajikistan and South Asia where the Persian language has historically been either the native or official language. For example, Rumi , one of the best-loved Persian poets, born in Balkh in modern-day Afghanistan or Wakhsh in modern-day Tajikistan , wrote in Persian and lived in Konya in modern-day Turkey , at that time the capital of the Seljuks in Anatolia. The Ghaznavids conquered large territories in Central and South Asia and adopted Persian as their court language. Not all Persian literature is written in Persian , as some consider works written by ethnic Persians or Iranians in other languages, such as Greek and Arabic , to be included. At the same time, not all literature written in Persian is written by ethnic Persians or Iranians, as Turkic, Caucasian, and Indic poets and writers have also used the Persian language in the environment of Persianate cultures.
Persian literature , body of writings in New Persian also called Modern Persian , the form of the Persian language written since the 9th century with a slightly extended form of the Arabic alphabet and with many Arabic loanwords. For centuries New Persian has also been a prestigious cultural language in western Central Asia , on the Indian subcontinent, and in Turkey. The Iranian languages belong, together with the Indo-Aryan languages of the Indian subcontinent, to one of the oldest branches of the Indo-European linguistic family. There exist documents written in the Old Iranian languages that have survived for nearly three millennia. It is generally accepted that they contain the original teachings of the prophet Zoroaster Zarathustra , who lived in the first half of the 1st millennium bce. His hymns show traces of versification, the precise prosody of which is still imperfectly known. Also important to early Iranian literature are the remnants of ancient myths preserved in the Avesta, especially in the yasht s, which are texts addressed to Iranian deities.
In the Persian language, these gardens were called pardis , from which the English word paradise—in the sense of heaven—derives Fallahi, a. From the era of the Achaemenian and Sasanian dynasties, Iran itself was conceptualized by its rulers and citizens as a huge garden with surrounding walls that encompassed different tribes and beliefs, with every reward promised to be in heaven. This vision was evident from a speech about Iran and its walls by Persian King Anushirvan of the Sasanian dynasty. However, the fantasized walls came down and Arabs, Turks, Mongols, and others went into Iran. Still, the concept of the Persian garden remained in Iran, and all these conquerors continued to build gardens Daryaee,
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Abstract: The Kush-nameh, one of the most famous Islamic epic texts, dealing with the historical relations between Iran and Silla, was written by the great Iranian scholar Iran-Shan ibn Abal-khayr in Hegira AD. References to the Kush-nameh and to Kush are known from other Islamic writings. The Kush-nameh mentions Frwm, which is located to the north west of Iran, as a Chinese toponym.
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Он попытался оторвать голову от пола. Мир кругом казался расплывчатым, каким-то водянистым. И снова этот голос. Он присел на корточки и в десяти метрах от себя увидел чей-то силуэт. - Мистер. Беккер узнал голос. Это девушка.
Вы что, морочите нам голову? - взорвался Джабба. Беккер покачал головой: - Отнюдь. Тут написано - Quis custodiet ipsos custodes. Это можно примерно перевести как… - Кто будет охранять охранников! - закончила за него Сьюзан. Беккера поразила ее реакция.
Вы ошибаетесь, сэр! - вскричал Чатрукьян. - И если он проникнет в главную базу данных… - Что еще за файл, черт возьми. Покажите мне. Чатрукьян заколебался.
ГЛАВА 105 Огненный шар, рвущийся наверх сквозь миллионы силиконовых чипов, производил ни на что не похожий звук. Треск лесного пожара, вой торнадо, шипение горячего гейзера… все они слились в гуле дрожащего корпуса машины. Это было дыхание дьявола, ищущее выхода и вырывающееся из закрытой пещеры. Стратмор так и остался стоять на коленях, парализованный ужасающим, неуклонно приближающимся звуком. Самый дорогой компьютер в мире на его глазах превращался в восьмиэтажный ад.