File Name: lab on a chip technology volume 1 fabrication and microfluidics .zip
A lab-on-a-chip LOC is a device that integrates one or several laboratory functions on a single integrated circuit commonly called a "chip" of only millimeters to a few square centimeters to achieve automation and high-throughput screening. LOCs may use microfluidics , the physics, manipulation and study of minute amounts of fluids. Due to further development of these usually CMOS -compatibility limited processes, a tool box became available to create micrometre or sub-micrometre sized mechanical structures in silicon wafers as well: the micro electro mechanical systems MEMS era had started.
Next to pressure sensors, airbag sensors and other mechanically movable structures, fluid handling devices were developed. Examples are: channels capillary connections , mixers, valves, pumps and dosing devices.
The first LOC analysis system was a gas chromatograph, developed in by S. Terry at Stanford University. The added value was not only limited to integration of lab processes for analysis but also the characteristic possibilities of individual components and the application to other, non-analysis, lab processes.
Hence the term "lab-on-a-chip" was introduced. Although the application of LOCs is still novel and modest, a growing interest of companies and applied research groups is observed in different fields such as analysis e. Besides further application developments, research in LOC systems is expected to extend towards downscaling of fluid handling structures as well, by using nanotechnology. Sub-micrometre and nano-sized channels, DNA labyrinths, single cell detection and analysis,  and nano-sensors, might become feasible, allowing new ways of interaction with biological species and large molecules.
Many books have been written that cover various aspects of these devices, including the fluid transport,    system properties,  sensing techniques,  and bioanalytical applications.
The basis for most LOC fabrication processes is photolithography. Initially most processes were in silicon, as these well-developed technologies were directly derived from semiconductor fabrication.
Because of demands for e. LOCs may provide advantages, which are specific to their application. Typical advantages  are:. The most prominent disadvantages  of labs-on-chip are:. Lab-on-a-chip technology may soon become an important part of efforts to improve global health ,  particularly through the development of point-of-care testing devices. In some cases, poor healthcare clinics have the drugs to treat a certain illness but lack the diagnostic tools to identify patients who should receive the drugs.
Many researchers believe that LOC technology may be the key to powerful new diagnostic instruments. The goal of these researchers is to create microfluidic chips that will allow healthcare providers in poorly equipped clinics to perform diagnostic tests such as microbiological culture assays , immunoassays and nucleic acid assays with no laboratory support.
For the chips to be used in areas with limited resources, many challenges must be overcome. In developed nations, the most highly valued traits for diagnostic tools include speed, sensitivity, and specificity; but in countries where the healthcare infrastructure is less well developed, attributes such as ease of use and shelf life must also be considered.
The reagents that come with the chip, for example, must be designed so that they remain effective for months even if the chip is not kept in a climate controlled environment.
Chip designers must also keep cost , scalability , and recyclability in mind as they choose what materials and fabrication techniques to use. One of the most prominent and well known LOC devices to reach the market is the at home pregnancy test kit, a device that utilizes paper-based microfluidics technology. Another active area of LOC research involves ways to diagnose and manage common infectious diseases caused by bacteria , eg. A gold standard for diagnosing bacteriuria urinary tract infections is microbial culture.
A recent study based on lab-on-a-chip technology, Digital Dipstick,  miniaturised microbiological culture into a dipstick format and enabled it to be used at the point-of-care. When it comes to viral infections, HIV infections are a good example.
Around At the moment, flow cytometry is the gold standard for obtaining CD4 counts, but flow cytometry is a complicated technique that is not available in most developing areas because it requires trained technicians and expensive equipment.
In such devices it is possible to quickly diagnose and potentially treat diseases. As mentioned above, a big motivation for development of these is that they can potentially be manufactured at very low cost. If this application becomes reliable, these micro-devices could be installed on a global scale and notify homeowners of potentially dangerous compounds. Lab-on-a-chip devices could be used to characterize pollen tube guidance in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Specifically, plant on a chip is a miniaturized device in which pollen tissues and ovules could be incubated for plant sciences studies. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the technology. For the journal, see Lab on a Chip journal. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Biology portal Technology portal. Jul Trends in Biotechnology. Angell; Stephen C. Terry; Phillip W. Barth April Scientific American. Bibcode : SciAm. Jerman IEEE Trans. Electron Devices. Bibcode : ITED Manz, N. Graber and H. Lab on a Chip. Cambridge University Press. Theoretical Microfluidics. Microflows and Nanoflows. Springer Verlag. Introduction to Microfluidic. Microfluidics for Biotechnology.
Biological Applications of Microfluidics. Advanced Materials Technologies. Advanced Science. Microfluidics and Nanofluidics. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. Tam; Bernhard H. Weigl July Bibcode : Natur. The Daily Bruin. Retrieved 26 January Bibcode : JMiMi.. Hidden categories: Pages with missing ISBNs Articles needing additional references from August All articles needing additional references All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from May Namespaces Article Talk.
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The extremely high peak intensity associated with ultrashort pulse width of femtosecond laser allows us to induce nonlinear interaction such as multiphoton absorption and tunneling ionization with materials that are transparent to the laser wavelength. More importantly, focusing the femtosecond laser beam inside the transparent materials confines the nonlinear interaction only within the focal volume, enabling three-dimensional 3D micro- and nanofabrication. This 3D capability offers three different schemes, which involve undeformative, subtractive, and additive processing. The undeformative processing preforms internal refractive index modification to construct optical microcomponents including optical waveguides. Subtractive processing can realize the direct fabrication of 3D microfluidics, micromechanics, microelectronics, and photonic microcomponents in glass.
Springer Handbook of Nanotechnology pp Cite as. Various microfluidic components and their characteristics, along with the demonstration of two recent achievements of lab-on-chip systems are reviewed and discussed. Many microfluidic devices and components have been developed during the past few decades, as introduced earlier for various applications. Microfluidics is the multidisciplinary research field that requires basic knowledge in fluidics, micromachining, electromagnetics, materials, and chemistry for various applications. Among the various application areas of microfluidics, one of the most important is the lab-on-a-chip system.
Microfluidics has emerged as a set of powerful tools that have greatly advanced some areas of biological research, including research using C. The use of microfluidics has enabled many experiments that are otherwise impossible with conventional methods. Today there are many examples that demonstrate the main advantages of using microfluidics for C. Examples range from behavioral analysis under precise chemical or odor stimulation, locomotion studies in well-defined structural surroundings, and even long-term culture on chip. Moreover, microfluidics has enabled coupling worm handling and imaging thus facilitating genetic screens, optogenetic studies, and laser ablation experiments.
Bach, Lam D. Tran, Ha H. The working parts of the micro-valve and microfluidic channel were fabricated from Poly dimethyl siloxane materials. The study on controlling liquid flows proved that this valve system was effective for the experiments on the flow mixing and delivering the reactants into the micro-reaction chamber in order.
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Current lab-on-a-chip technologies including theoretical and technical information for the understanding of the technology and the reproduction of experiments.