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Establishment And Use Of Reference Values Ppt To Pdf

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The central role of the laboratory scientist is to aid the clinician, in interpreting observed values, by providing relevant reference values in a convenient and practical form. In India, reference values used in laboratories have been established in the western population. But these can be questioned due to differences in genetic load, lifestyle, and diet.

Interpretation of laboratory results

Reliable and accurate reference intervals RIs for laboratory analyses are an integral part of the process of correct interpretation of clinical laboratory test results. RIs given in laboratory reports have an important role in aiding the clinician in interpreting test results in reference to values for healthy populations. Multicentric RIs studies are the most important development in the area of RIs. Confusion of RIs and clinical decision limits CDLs remains an issue and pediatric and geriatric age groups are a significant problem. For future studies of RIs, the genetic effect would seem to be the most challenging area. The aim of the review is to present the current theory and practice of RIs, with special emphasis given to multicenter RIs studies, RIs studies for pediatric and geriatric age groups, clinical decision limits and partitioning by genetic effects on RIs. From to , the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry IFCC published a series of 6 papers, in which it was recommended that each laboratory follow defined procedures to produce its own reference values 3 - 8.

Horowitz, M. Medicine is an art and a science in the service of fellow human beings. To improve the health of their patients, physicians 1 collect empirical data, 2 interpret these data using scientific knowledge and professional experience, 3 make decisions concerning diagnoses, 4 recommend preventive measures, and 5 execute therapeutic actions. Health is necessarily a relative concept. Data collected during the medical interview, clinical examination, and supplementary investigations must be interpreted by comparison with reference data. The physician does this when making a diagnosis. If the condition of the patient resembles what is considered typical of a particular disease, the physician may base the diagnosis on this observation positive diagnosis.

Traumatic brain injury management is a tricky issue in children and pregnant women due to adverse effects of computer tomography. The analytical performances of both instruments and the influence of blood cells and skin pigmentation on the assay were also studied. For children, four age-groups emerged, i. We also found SB expression protein, total mRNA in lymphocytes, an influence of skin pigmentation, and good analytical performances for both instruments. Clinical diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury mTBI is difficult in children a very exposed population and pregnant women, as cranial computed tomography CCT is strongly limited due to increased tumor risk in children [ 1 ] or teratogenic effects in the embryo and fetus [ 2 ]. An alternative strategy to CCT has been developed based on blood biomarkers, with SB protein emerging as the most sensitive and specific candidate biomarker in children and adults [ 3 ], [ 4 ].

Establishment and Use of Reference Values

Haematological reference values are necessary for accurate diagnosis of diseases, clinical decision-making, treatment monitoring and clinical research. Due to unavailability of pan-Nigerian reference values, local results interpretation is based on the use of Western values. This study aims to establish national reference values for some haematological parameters in apparently healthy young adult Nigerians. Seven Thousand, Seven Hundred and Ninety-Seven 7, volunteers aged 18 to 26 years participated in the study. The result obtained was reviewed with reference to already established reference values in two West African and Western countries. Blood specimens from

Clinical laboratory test results are a very important parameter in diagnosis, monitoring and screening. Thus a lot of data are provided and it is therefore imperative for patient care and safety that the clinicians are familiar with the tests and with interpretation of the results. The laboratory result must be interpreted on the background of a reference interval that is used to distinguish between "health" and "disease". The clinician must also evaluate the result from the knowledge of biological variation and be aware of the potential risk of false interpretation. Likewise, influence of random errors and systematic errors on the result is of importance as well as the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. First of all the clinician must use the laboratory results in the right context, but it is also of outmost importance that the clinician understands what is behind the test result with regard to statistical probability, random and systematic errors, etc. The laboratory has certainly also a role and a responsibility in providing clinicians with adequate information that can assist them in the correct interpretation of the data.

In health -related fields, a reference range or reference interval is the range of values that is deemed normal for a physiologic measurement in healthy persons for example, the amount of creatinine in the blood , or the partial pressure of oxygen. It is a basis for comparison a frame of reference for a physician or other health professional to interpret a set of test results for a particular patient. Some important reference ranges in medicine are reference ranges for blood tests and reference ranges for urine tests. The standard definition of a reference range usually referred to if not otherwise specified originates in what is most prevalent in a reference group taken from the general i. This is the general reference range. However, there are also optimal health ranges ranges that appear to have the optimal health impact and ranges for particular conditions or statuses such as pregnancy reference ranges for hormone levels. Values within the reference range WRR are those within the normal distribution and are thus often described as within normal limits WNL.

Reference intervals: current status, recent developments and future considerations

 Я должен идти. Он извинился перед немцем за вторжение, в ответ на что тот скромно улыбнулся. - Keine Ursache. Беккер вышел в коридор. Нет проблем.

 Да вроде бы, - смущенно проговорил Беккер. - Это не так важно, - горделиво заявил Клушар.  - Мою колонку перепечатывают в Соединенных Штатах, у меня отличный английский.

 В Коннектикут. - Я же сказал. Возвращается домой, к мамочке и папочке, в свой пригород. Ей обрыдли ее испанская семейка и местное житье-бытье.

 Не понимаю, - сказала.  - Мы же говорим не о реверсии какой-либо сложной функции, а о грубой силе. PGP, Lucifer, DSA - не важно.

Establishment of reference intervals in Indian population

Правда, оставалась еще одна проблема - Дэвид до сих пор не нашел второй экземпляр ключа. Она молилась, чтобы его усилия увенчались успехом. Направляясь к центру Третьего узла, Сьюзан пыталась привести свои мысли в порядок. Странно, что она чувствует нервозность в такой знакомой ей обстановке. В темноте все в Третьем узле казалось чужим.

По иронии судьбы в Третьем узле секреты не очень-то любили. Нареченный Детским манежем, Третий узел ничем не напоминал стерильную атмосферу остальной части шифровалки. Его обстановка напоминала домашнюю - мягкий ковер, высокотехнологичная звуковая система, холодильник, полный напитков и всяческой еды, маленькая кухня и даже баскетбольное кольцо. В отношении шифровалки в АНБ сложилась своеобразная философия. Нет смысла вбухивать миллиарды долларов в дешифровальный компьютер и одновременно экономить на тех, кто работает на этой превосходной технике. Сьюзан скинула туфли на низких каблуках от Сальваторе Феррагамо и блаженно погрузила обтянутые чулками ноги в густой шерстяной ковер.

Он попытался сделать из апельсиновой кожуры джем, но чтобы можно было взять его в рот, в него пришлось добавить огромное количество сахара. Так появился апельсиновый мармелад. Халохот пробирался между деревьями с пистолетом в руке. Деревья были очень старыми, с высокими голыми стволами.

Если адресат находится в Штатах и пользуется такими провайдерами, как Америка онлайн или Компьюсерв, я отслежу его кредитную карточку и получу его учетную запись в течение часа. Если он использует адрес университета или корпорации, времени уйдет немного.  - Она через силу улыбнулась.  - Остальное будет зависеть от .

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Interpretation of laboratory test results with appropriate diagnostic accuracy requires reference or cutoff values.

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Clinical laboratory reference values from North American and European populations are currently used in most Africans countries due to the absence of locally derived reference ranges, despite previous studies reporting significant differences between populations.

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