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Intellectual Disability Definition Classification And Systems Of Supports Pdf

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Schalock Sharon A. Bradley Wil H. Buntinx David L.

Ment Retard 1 April ; 41 2 : — Buntinx, David L. Coulter, Ellis M.

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Intellectual disability ID , also known as general learning disability [3] and formerly mental retardation MR , [4] [5] is a generalized neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by significantly impaired intellectual and adaptive functioning. It is defined by an IQ under 70 , in addition to deficits in two or more adaptive behaviors that affect everyday, general living. Once focused almost entirely on cognition , the definition now includes both a component relating to mental functioning and one relating to an individual's functional skills in their daily environment.

As a result of this focus on the person's abilities in practice, a person with an unusually low IQ may still not be considered to have an intellectual disability.

Intellectual disability is subdivided into syndromic intellectual disability, in which intellectual deficits associated with other medical and behavioral signs and symptoms are present, and non-syndromic intellectual disability, in which intellectual deficits appear without other abnormalities. Intellectual disability ID becomes apparent during childhood and involves deficits in mental abilities, social skills, and core activities of daily living ADLs when compared to same-aged peers.

The level of impairment ranges in severity for each person. Some of the early signs can include: [10]. In early childhood, mild ID IQ 50—69 may not be obvious or identified until children begin school. People with mild ID are capable of learning reading and mathematics skills to approximately the level of a typical child aged nine to twelve.

They can learn self-care and practical skills, such as cooking or using the local mass transit system. As individuals with intellectual disability reach adulthood, many learn to live independently and maintain gainful employment.

Moderate ID IQ 35—49 is nearly always apparent within the first years of life. Speech delays are particularly common signs of moderate ID. People with moderate intellectual disabilities need considerable supports in school, at home, and in the community in order to fully participate.

While their academic potential is limited, they can learn simple health and safety skills and to participate in simple activities. As adults, they may live with their parents, in a supportive group home , or even semi-independently with significant supportive services to help them, for example, manage their finances. As adults, they may work in a sheltered workshop. They may learn some ADLs, but an intellectual disability is considered severe or profound when individuals are unable to independently care for themselves without ongoing significant assistance from a caregiver throughout adulthood.

They may be able to learn to participate in some of these activities to a limited degree. Intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder ASD share clinical characteristics which can result in confusion while diagnosing. Those with ASD that hold symptoms of ID may be grouped into a co-diagnosis in which they are receiving treatment for a disorder they do not have. Likewise, those with ID that are mistaken to have ASD may be treated for symptoms of a disorder they do not have.

Differentiating between these two disorders will allow clinicians to deliver or prescribe the appropriate treatments. In addition to those three levels, ID has a fourth classification known as profound. In a study conducted in surveying cases, it was found that the top subsets that help differentiate between those with ID and ASD are, " In a study done in of individuals with varying levels of ID, it was found that those with ID display fewer instances of repetitive or ritualistic behaviors.

It also recognized that those with ASD, when compared to those with ID, were more likely to isolate themselves and make less eye contact. ID has a standardized assessment called the Supports Intensity Scale SIS , this measures severity on a system built around how much support an individual will need.

While ASD also classifies severity by support needed there is no standard assessment, clinicians are free to diagnose severity at their own judgment. Among children, the cause of intellectual disability is unknown for one-third to one-half of cases. Examples of such accidents are development of an extra chromosome 18 trisomy 18 and Down syndrome , which is the most common genetic cause.

The most common are:. According to both the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities [24] Intellectual Disability: Definition, Classification, and Systems of Supports 11th Edition and the American Psychiatric Association [25] Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-IV , three criteria must be met for a diagnosis of intellectual disability: significant limitation in general mental abilities intellectual functioning , significant limitations in one or more areas of adaptive behavior across multiple environments as measured by an adaptive behavior rating scale, i.

In general, people with intellectual disabilities have an IQ below 70, but clinical discretion may be necessary for individuals who have a somewhat higher IQ but severe impairment in adaptive functioning. It is formally diagnosed by an assessment of IQ and adaptive behavior.

A third condition requiring onset during the developmental period is used to distinguish intellectual disability from other conditions, such as traumatic brain injuries and dementias including Alzheimer's disease. Lewis Terman adapted Binet's test and promoted it as a test measuring "general intelligence. Current tests are scored in "deviation IQ" form, with a performance level by a test-taker two standard deviations below the median score for the test-takers age group defined as IQ Until the most recent revision of diagnostic standards, an IQ of 70 or below was a primary factor for intellectual disability diagnosis, and IQ scores were used to categorize degrees of intellectual disability.

Since the current diagnosis of intellectual disability is not based on IQ scores alone, but must also take into consideration a person's adaptive functioning, the diagnosis is not made rigidly. It encompasses intellectual scores, adaptive functioning scores from an adaptive behavior rating scale based on descriptions of known abilities provided by someone familiar with the person, and also the observations of the assessment examiner who is able to find out directly from the person what he or she can understand, communicate, and such like.

IQ assessment must be based on a current test. This enables a diagnosis to avoid the pitfall of the Flynn effect , which is a consequence of changes in population IQ test performance changing IQ test norms over time.

Clinically , intellectual disability is a subtype of cognitive deficit or disabilities affecting intellectual abilities , which is a broader concept and includes intellectual deficits that are too mild to properly qualify as intellectual disability, or too specific as in specific learning disability , or acquired later in life through acquired brain injuries or neurodegenerative diseases like dementia. Cognitive deficits may appear at any age.

Developmental disability is any disability that is due to problems with growth and development. This term encompasses many congenital medical conditions that have no mental or intellectual components, although it, too, is sometimes used as a euphemism for intellectual disability. Adaptive behavior, or adaptive functioning, refers to the skills needed to live independently or at the minimally acceptable level for age. To assess adaptive behavior, professionals compare the functional abilities of a child to those of other children of similar age.

To measure adaptive behavior, professionals use structured interviews, with which they systematically elicit information about persons' functioning in the community from people who know them well. There are many adaptive behavior scales, and accurate assessment of the quality of someone's adaptive behavior requires clinical judgment as well.

Certain skills are important to adaptive behavior, such as:. Other specific skills can be critical to an individual's inclusion in the community and to develop appropriate social behaviors, as for example being aware of the different social expectations linked to the principal lifespan stages i. The results of a Swiss study suggest that the performance of adults with ID in recognizing different lifespan stages is related to specific cognitive abilities and to the type of material used to test this performance.

By most definitions, intellectual disability is more accurately considered a disability rather than a disease. Intellectual disability can be distinguished in many ways from mental illness , such as schizophrenia or depression. Currently, there is no "cure" for an established disability, though with appropriate support and teaching, most individuals can learn to do many things. Causes, such as congenital hypothyroidism, if detected early may be treated to prevent the development of an intellectual disability.

There are thousands of agencies around the world that provide assistance for people with developmental disabilities. They include state-run, for-profit, and non-profit, privately run agencies.

Within one agency there could be departments that include fully staffed residential homes, day rehabilitation programs that approximate schools, workshops wherein people with disabilities can obtain jobs, programs that assist people with developmental disabilities in obtaining jobs in the community, programs that provide support for people with developmental disabilities who have their own apartments, programs that assist them with raising their children, and many more.

There are also many agencies and programs for parents of children with developmental disabilities. Beyond that, there are specific programs that people with developmental disabilities can take part in wherein they learn basic life skills. These "goals" may take a much longer amount of time for them to accomplish, but the ultimate goal is independence.

This may be anything from independence in tooth brushing to an independent residence. People with developmental disabilities learn throughout their lives and can obtain many new skills even late in life with the help of their families, caregivers, clinicians and the people who coordinate the efforts of all of these people. There are four broad areas of intervention that allow for active participation from caregivers, community members, clinicians, and of course, the individual s with an intellectual disability.

These include psychosocial treatments, behavioral treatments, cognitive-behavioral treatments, and family-oriented strategies. Results indicated that by age 2, the children provided the intervention had higher test scores than control group children, and they remained approximately 5 points higher 10 years after the end of the program.

By young adulthood, children from the intervention group had better educational attainment, employment opportunities, and fewer behavioral problems than their control-group counterparts. Core components of behavioral treatments include language and social skills acquisition.

Typically, one-to-one training is offered in which a therapist uses a shaping procedure in combination with positive reinforcements to help the child pronounce syllables until words are completed. Sometimes involving pictures and visual aids, therapists aim at improving speech capacity so that short sentences about important daily tasks e. The first goal of the training is to teach the child to be a strategical thinker through making cognitive connections and plans.

Then, the therapist teaches the child to be metastrategical by teaching them to discriminate among different tasks and determine which plan or strategy suits each task. In general, this includes teaching assertiveness skills or behavior management techniques as well as how to ask for help from neighbors, extended family, or day-care staff. In a Cochrane review on beginning reading interventions for children and adolescents with intellectual disability small to moderate improvements in phonological awareness, word reading, decoding, expressive and receptive language skills and reading fluency were noted when these elements were part of the teaching intervention.

Although there is no specific medication for intellectual disability, many people with developmental disabilities have further medical complications and may be prescribed several medications.

For example, autistic children with developmental delay may be prescribed antipsychotics or mood stabilizers to help with their behavior. Use of psychotropic medications such as benzodiazepines in people with intellectual disability requires monitoring and vigilance as side effects occur commonly and are often misdiagnosed as behavioral and psychiatric problems.

About a quarter of cases are caused by a genetic disorder. Intellectual disability has been documented under a variety of names throughout history.

Throughout much of human history, society was unkind to those with any type of disability, and people with intellectual disability were commonly viewed as burdens on their families. Greek and Roman philosophers, who valued reasoning abilities, disparaged people with intellectual disability as barely human.

Caliph Al-Walid r. In addition, Al-Walid assigned each intellectually disabled individual a caregiver. Until the Enlightenment in Europe, care and asylum was provided by families and the church in monasteries and other religious communities , focusing on the provision of basic physical needs such as food, shelter, and clothing.

Negative stereotypes were prominent in social attitudes of the time. In the 13th century, England declared people with intellectual disabilities to be incapable of making decisions or managing their affairs.

In the 17th century, Thomas Willis provided the first description of intellectual disability as a disease. According to Willis, the anatomical problems could be either an inborn condition or acquired later in life. In the 18th and 19th centuries, housing and care moved away from families and towards an asylum model. People were placed by, or removed from, their families usually in infancy and housed in large professional institutions, many of which were self-sufficient through the labor of the residents.

Some of these institutions provided a very basic level of education such as differentiation between colors and basic word recognition and numeracy , but most continued to focus solely on the provision of basic needs of food, clothing, and shelter. Conditions in such institutions varied widely, but the support provided was generally non-individualized, with aberrant behavior and low levels of economic productivity regarded as a burden to society.

Individuals of higher wealth were often able to afford higher degrees of care such as home care or private asylums. Services were provided based on the relative ease to the provider, not based on the needs of the individual. A survey taken in in Cape Town, South Africa shows the distribution between different facilities.

Intellectual Disability: Definition, Classification, And Systems ... - aaidd

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Marc J. Intellect Dev Disabil 1 April ; 51 2 : — The World Health Organization WHO is in the process of seeking input from professional stakeholder groups and consumers regarding the draft proposals of the 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases ICD— The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities AAIDD was founded in and is the oldest interdisciplinary professional society with a focus on intellectual disability in the world. AAIDD has revised its definition and diagnostic criteria as the science and understanding of the condition has evolved over time. Its mission includes providing world-wide leadership on health matters, establishing norms and standards, articulating evidence-based policies, providing technical support to countries, and monitoring and assessing health trends around the globe. The five main uses of the Mental and Behavioral Disorders classification are: 1 clinical, 2 research, 3 teaching and training, 4 health statistics, and 5 public health International Advisory Group,

[DOWNLAD] PDF Intellectual Disability: Definition, Classification, and Systems of Supports (11th Edition) Intellectual Disability: Definition, Classification.

Intellectual disability: definitions, evaluation and principles of treatment

The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities counts approximately 3, interdisciplinary members. The membership structure includes professionals working in the field of intellectual and developmental disabilities. Members can select from a tiered membership menu: basic, classic, standard, and premium.

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Inclusive Education for Children with Intellectual Disability (ID) in Ghana

Deficits in cognitive and adaptive functioning are the hallmarks of intellectual disability. By the definitional criteria, intellectual disability must be identified during developmental years childhood through adolescence. Persons with intellectual disability require a variable degree of life-long support in education, ability to live independently, access health care, employment, and community participation and integration.

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American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD)

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Intellectual disability

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