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Bilingualism and Multilingualism

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Lecture 1: What Is Multilingualism?

What Is Multilingualism? Larissa Aronin. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. IntroductionMultilingualism is a complex, vibrant and ever-intriguing phenomenon. Today the significance of multilingualism has spilled over its local and private roles into having a much broader, global importance and it is one of the most essential social practices in the world.

The term multilingualism is used here to refer to the use of three and more languages and is distinguished, where appropriate, from bilingualism, the use of two languages. In this perspective bilingualism is taken to be a special case of multilingualism rather than vice versa.

This position will be further explained later in this lecture where, rather than taking the similarities between bilingualism and multilingualism for granted, we consider the meaningful differences between the two.

The question 'What is multilingualism? Decades have been spent on heated discussions about what kind of person a multilingual is. Definitions and descriptions of various communities which are labelled as multilingual vary in their accounts. The basic understanding of what multilingualism is often diverges for researchers depending on their differing backgrounds and ideologies.

Definitions include: 'Multilingualism is the presence of a number of languages in one country or community or city'; 'Multilingualism is the use of three or more languages'; and 'Multilingualism is the ability to speak several languages'. In this last sense, multilingualism is widely regarded as 'a natural state of humankind' Flynn, In addition, neuroscientists discuss multilingualism in the context of the way the brain is organized among those who speak multiple languages.

The above accounts suffice for general acquaintance with different dimensions of multilingualism. Still, there is so far no simple, short and 'one size fits all' answer to the question 'What is multilingualism?

This lecture will show why we should not expect one. Instead, it will acquaint the reader with the forms, appearances and key features of multilingualism. It will discuss the basic terminology and concepts of multilingualism, introduce the fundamentals that have been established in the field so far, mention some theories and concepts suggested and employed for the study of multilingualism and provide an update on its most recent developments. In the lecture, multilingualism will be considered in a general sense mostly as a societal phenomenon.

The existence of societal multilingualism in a country or region does not mean that the country or region in question is peopled by equally multilingual citizens. There are communities and territories where multiple languages coexist side by side. That is, in some countries speakers use their own languages but not so much the other languages of the community; they do not normally know and do not have to know or use all the languages spoken in this territory.

When many languages simply coexist in a territory, without the necessity of all of them being used by all the citizens, it can be called proximate multilingualism. Switzerland, with its principle of territoriality, is a good example of proximate multilingualism. Although this country is considered one of the oldest multilingual countries in Europe, its citizens do not need to use all four official languages of the Swiss Confederation: German, French, Italian and Romansch. A single language e.

Italian in Ticino, German in Zurich, Glarus, Lucerne, Nidwalden, Obwalden is recognized as official in most cantons for use in all domains of social communication. Only a few cantons are officially bilingual: Bienne and Freiburg, as well as the federal capital Berne with French and German as official languages. People can manage very well using just one official language of a canton.

In many localities we encounter a wide range of degrees to which languages simply exist separately side by side, or are interfused in the language practices of the citizens. This range runs from indifference to languages other than one's own to active interaction and tight language contact. In the proximal type of societal multilingualism, people speaking minority languages may live in linguistic and cultural bubbles, or may live their lives using only immigrant languages without mastery of an official majority language.

Where there is predominance of the proximate type of multilingualism in a society, some speakers who master a set of the important languages will serve as mediators between the language communities. The second form of societal multilingualism which has proliferated recently, often spreading to territories formerly characterized by the proximate form, is the integrative form of societal multilingualism.

The integrative form denotes the situation where people not only encounter other languages of the context but actively use them. Integrative multilingualism is increasingly frequent owing to the globalization processes of migration and technological advance.

The integrative and proximate forms of multilingualism are at opposite extremes of a continuum; there is a range of intermediate formsless integrative and more integrativein between. Historical and current multilingualismIn order to deal with multilingualism practically, and for the sake of theoretical understanding, it is useful to come to some conclusions about whether multilingualism existed in the past, or if is a totally new phenomenon. To answer this question let us first turn to the adjacent fields of anthropology, ethnology and history.

They inform us that multilingualism is a specifically human feature and has been characteristic of humans for thousands of years. Language is involved in human evolution in an intricate way and language is a quality distinguishing our species from others. Notably, many languages have been spoken from the dawn of human interaction. Barnard maintains that with Homo sapiens and possibly Neanderthals, who had bigger brains than Homo sapiens, '[m]ultilingualism was the norm, and multilingual peoples were made up of individuals from different linguistic backgrounds, whose groups intermarried and passed on both their genes and their linguistic diversity'.

Looking at more recent history, we see that the social nature of language and ideas about it roughly parallel stages of societal evolution and organization, varying under changing historical circumstances see Table 1. This table broadly suggests that for the earliest communities, the fact of the existence of human language was important in itself.

At this stage, whether in the form of a proto-language or embracing many particular communication systems, it served humans as a tool of communication and cognition and distinguished humans from other species.

Later in history, with the establishment of nation-states in Europe, language became a consolidating tool for the development of a civil society. A particular language or language variety from among those used within a nation's borders was often selected to play a unifying role and to enhance political and economic development in a country. During both waves of the development of individual nation-states, the first in the 15thth centuries the Netherlands, Scotland, England, United States, France and the second in the 19th century Sweden, Spain, Norway, Portugal, Greece, Belgium, Hungary, Denmark, Romania, Italy, Canada, Japan, Germany, Iceland and Bulgaria , the European territories divided into nation-states which were typically each identified by one language.

It was the language, e. French in France, High German in Germany, Spanish in Spain, that was called upon to represent communal identity, shared experiences and interests. Today, in postmodern times, multiple languages organized in unitary groups are important dominant language constellations are discussed later in this lecture. The particular form and essence of multilingualism is time dependent and follows changes in social existence.

In earlier times, particular languages and even single specific skills were instrumental in subserving a variety of facets of human existence as the backdrop to multilingualism. Multilingualism as a phenomenon was useful but not crucial for the maintenance and advancement of communities and groups. Normally, in various localities and communities, one factor came to the fore as especially useful.

At other times and in other places another linguistic skill would become useful for advancement of the particular group. Previous multilingual contexts mainly dictated particular points of emphasis in the use of several languages or their specific single skills necessitated by particular aims or needs.

We can infer that multilingualism of the past was largely circumstantial and unevenly spread between groups and individuals for a variety of purposes. Specific limited not necessarily unimportant aims needed to be attained, but such attainment did not define the development of humanity nor was it crucial for such development. Multilingualism in the past had different tasks and aims. It was local and patchy, whereas it is contrastingly systematically and overarchingly global now.

Our current day-to-day existence and social behaviour, accompanied by language, differ markedly from those of previous generations. In other words, the same but ever-changing elements each time generate different varieties of social practice, different kinds of multilingualism.

Flores and Lewis 98, emphasis added rightly treat 'language practices and language categories as sociopolitical emergences that are produced by the specific histories and contemporary contexts of interlocutors'. We can conclude this section as follows. The presence and the use of many languages in human societies as well as the human ability to use many languages have existed since long ago.

However, the manifestations, configuration and role of multilingualism have been different in different periods relating to circumstances and the stage of human development. Emphasizing these meaningful changes, I refer to the forms of multilingualism which occurred in the past as historical multilingualism, and that unfolding today as current multilingualism.

The specificity of the multilingualism of our own times will be elaborated on in the next section. The Key Features of Current MultilingualismCurrent multilingualism differs from the previous social linguistic arrangements in many ways.

Ignoring the transformations would be like saying that technology has not changed throughout history on the basis that we still use the wheel, which was allegedly invented in the late Neolithic period. In the following we will discuss the characteristic features of postmodernity inextricably linked to current language practices and the key features of current multilingualism.

Globalization as a context and the driving forceThe scope of multilingualism has broadened immensely to the extent that it now covers the whole world. Even the countries that were until recently considered strictly monolingual, such as Japan and Iceland, are now experiencing an influx of languages and multilingual speakers.

Current multilingualism is suffusive, being part and parcel of most current human activities. In late postmodern times multilingualism has gradually developed into a phenomenon crucial in its role in and impact on human civilization. What has led to such fundamental worldwide changes in the way people use their languages? Globalization is frequently invoked in this connection, and current multilingualism is linked to its basic processes such as mobility, diversity and technological innovation. These notions came under intensive discussion in the late 20th century and are often mentioned as characteristic only of more recent times.

In fact, many social processes and phenomena which we think of as appearing only recently are not really new, but rather have undergone transformation with time. Globalization itself is said to have started long ago, with the voyage of Christopher Columbus to the New World in Therefore, it is important to understand how mobility, diversity, complexity and the technological advances of today feature in the reality of multilingualism.

Mobility is one of the features deemed to be the cause of diversity of the current multilingualism. Yet scholars point out that people have always been on the move. Most recent anthropological research suggests that human language preceded the migrations of our species across the globe.

Barnard believes that language had begun before modern humans populated the earth: '[w]hen humans first arrived in Australia, they arrived with language, having used it on their migration and after their fortuitous settlement on the continent' Barnard, In the Middle Ages in Europe the roads were full of pilgrims, priests and wandering soldiers, and carriages bringing families and their luggage from villages to towns and back.

Chaunu describes the ways in which improving transport in Europe facilitated the flow of people and trade, resulting in remarkable economic effects for some places.

Bilingualism and Multilingualism

Language Awareness and Multilingualism pp Cite as. A key research issue about bilinguals and multilinguals has been about their implicit and explicit knowledge of the languages they speak including within the different contexts of their communication. Research suggests that bilinguals have specific advantages over monolinguals in analysing their languages and in controlled attention to their language processing. However, research does not uniformly show all bilinguals having such advantages, with those who have two or more relatively well-developed languages having a higher probability of showing positive effects. Such positive effects appear to last beyond childhood into late adulthood.

Lecture 1: What Is Multilingualism?

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies.

Bilingualism and multilingualism is an interdisciplinary and complex field. As is self-evident from the prefixes bi- and multi- , bilingualism and multilingualism phenomena are devoted to the study of production, processing, and comprehension of two and more than two languages, respectively. However, in colloquial usage the term bilingualism is used as a cover term to embody both bilingualism and multilingualism.

Bilingualism and Multilingualism

Knowledge About Bilingualism and Multilingualism

A bilingual individual, generally, is someone who speaks two languages. An ideal or balanced bilingual speaks each language as proficiently as an educated native speaker. This is often referred to as an ideal type since few people are regarded as being able to reach this standard. Otherwise, a bilingual may be anywhere on a continuum of skills. Literacy abilities may be an additional dimension to bilingualism, but they are often referred to separately as biliteracy, leaving bilingualism to carry the weight of oral language abilities. Bilingualism is a specific case of multilingualism, which has no ceiling on the number of languages a speaker may dominate.

Students sometimes ask me what the difference is between multilingualism and plurlingualism. Bilingualism — The ability to speak two languages proficiently though not necessarily perfectly. Multilingualism — The ability to speak many languages proficiently though not necessarily perfectly. Plurilingualism — The capacity and competence to learn more than one language, as well as the value of linguistic tolerance within individuals and countries.

Students sometimes ask me what the difference is between multilingualism and plurlingualism. Bilingualism — The ability to speak two languages proficiently though not necessarily perfectly. Multilingualism — The ability to speak many languages proficiently though not necessarily perfectly. Plurilingualism — The capacity and competence to learn more than one language, as well as the value of linguistic tolerance within individuals and countries. It is associated with intercultural competence and democratic citizenship. This term is often used to talk about language education and policy. For more details, see Council of Europe source referenced below.

Knowledge About Bilingualism and Multilingualism

The Difference Between Multilingualism and Plurilingualism, Simplified

Шлюзы открылись - в Интернет хлынула публика. К началу 1990-х годов некогда тщательно охраняемый правительством Интернет превратился в перенаселенное пространство, заполненное общедоступными почтовыми серверами и порнографическими сайтами. Вскоре после не получившего огласки, но причинившего колоссальный ущерб государственной безопасности проникновения в базы данных Военно-морского флота стало абсолютно очевидно, что секретная информация, хранящаяся на компьютерах, подключенных к Интернету, перестала быть тайной. По предложению министерства обороны президент подписал тайное распоряжение о создании новой, абсолютно безопасной правительственной сети, которая должна была заменить скомпрометировавший себя Интернет и стать средством связи разведывательных агентств США. Чтобы предотвратить дальнейшее проникновение в государственные секреты, вся наиболее важная информация была сосредоточена в одном в высшей степени безопасном месте - новой базе данных АНБ, своего рода форте Нокс разведывательной информации страны. Без преувеличения многие миллионы наиболее секретных фотографий, магнитофонных записей, документов и видеофильмов были записаны на электронные носители и отправлены в колоссальное по размерам хранилище, а твердые копии этих материалов были уничтожены. Базу данных защищали трехуровневое реле мощности и многослойная система цифровой поддержки.

Она понимала, что найти принадлежащую Хейлу копию ключа будет очень трудно. Найти ее на одном из жестких дисков - все равно что отыскать носок в спальне размером со штат Техас. Компьютерные поисковые системы работают, только если вы знаете, что ищете; этот пароль - некая неопределенность. К счастью, поскольку сотрудникам шифровалки приходилось иметь дело с огромным количеством достаточно неопределенных материалов, они разработали сложную процедуру так называемого неортодоксального поиска. Такой поиск, по существу, представляет собой команду компьютеру просмотреть все строки знаков на жестком диске, сравнить их с данными громадного по объему словаря и пометить те из них, которые кажутся бессмысленными или произвольными. Это сложнейшая работа, заключающаяся в постоянном отсеивании лишнего, но она вполне выполнима.

Мидж вздохнула: - А что еще это может. - Это может быть не вашим делом! - раздался зычный голос у них за спиной. Мидж от неожиданности стукнулась головой о стекло. Бринкерхофф опрокинул директорский стул и бросился к двери. Он сразу же узнал этот голос.

Knowledge About Bilingualism and Multilingualism

 Ein Vorschlag? - У немца перехватило дыхание.  - Предложение.

 - Танкадо подумал, что раз мы приостановили действие его страхового полиса, то можем приостановить и его. Постепенно она начала понимать. Время сердечного приступа настолько устраивало АНБ, что Танкадо сразу понял, чьих это рук дело, и в последние мгновения своей жизни инстинктивно подумал о мести. Энсей Танкадо отдал кольцо, надеясь обнародовать ключ. И теперь - во что просто не верится - какой-то ни о чем не подозревающий канадский турист держит в своих руках ключ к самому мощному шифровальному алгоритму в истории.

Она нахмурилась. - Ты не заметил ничего. Ну, может, дошел какой-нибудь слушок. - Мидж, послушай.  - Он засмеялся.

Он понимал, что пуля лишь слегка оцарапала жертву, не причинив существенного ущерба, тем не менее она сделала свое. Контакт был установлен. Жертва ощутила прикосновение смерти, и началась совершенно иная игра.

 Что. - Забавно, - сказала .

Сьюзан важно было ощущать свое старшинство. В ее обязанности в качестве главного криптографа входило поддерживать в шифровалке мирную атмосферу - воспитывать. Особенно таких, как Хейл, - зеленых и наивных.

Никому даже близко не удалось подойти к базе АНБ, и у агентства не было оснований полагать, что это когда-нибудь случится в будущем. Вернувшись в лабораторию, Чатрукьян никак не мог решить, должен ли он идти домой. Неисправность ТРАНСТЕКСТА угрожала и базе данных, а легкомыслие Стратмора не имело оправданий. Всем известно, что ТРАНСТЕКСТ и главная база данных АНБ тесно связаны между .

 Кто… кто вы. - Пройдемте с нами, пожалуйста. Сюда. В этой встрече было что-то нереальное - нечто, заставившее снова напрячься все его нервные клетки. Он поймал себя на том, что непроизвольно пятится от незнакомцев.

Сьюзан прочитала их. Стратмор в отчаянии нажал на кнопку просмотра. ОБЪЕКТ: ЭНСЕЙ ТАНКАДО - ЛИКВИДИРОВАН ОБЪЕКТ: ПЬЕР КЛУШАР - ЛИКВИДИРОВАН ОБЪЕКТ: ГАНС ХУБЕР - ЛИКВИДИРОВАН ОБЪЕКТ: РОСИО ЕВА ГРАНАДА - ЛИКВИДИРОВАНА… Список на этом не заканчивался, и Стратмора охватил ужас. Я смогу ей объяснить. Она поймет.

 Танкадо играет с нами в слова! - сказал Беккер.  - Слово элемент имеет несколько значений. - Какие же, мистер Беккер? - спросил Фонтейн. Все остальные встретили слова Беккера недоуменным молчанием. - Элементы! - повторил Беккер.

Тишина. Наверное, Меган, подумал. У нее оставалось целых пять часов до рейса, и она сказала, что попытается отмыть руку. - Меган? - позвал он и постучал .


Cameron D. 26.05.2021 at 03:28

Bilingualism and multilingualism is an interdisciplinary and complex field.

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A bilingual individual, generally, is someone who speaks two languages.