File Name: iupac nomenclature of simple organic and inorganic compounds .zip
Make sure that your printout includes all content from the page. If it doesn't, try opening this guide in a different browser and printing from there sometimes Internet Explorer works better, sometimes Chrome, sometimes Firefox, etc. Hydrocarbons are the simplest organic compounds, but they have interesting physiological effects.
These effects depend on the size of the hydrocarbon molecules and where on or in the body they are applied. Alkanes of low molar mass—those with from 1 to approximately 10 or so carbon atoms—are gases or light liquids that act as anesthetics. Swallowed, liquid alkanes do little harm while in the stomach. The lungs become unable to expel fluids, just as in pneumonia caused by bacteria or viruses.
People who swallow gasoline or other liquid alkane mixtures should not be made to vomit, as this would increase the chance of getting alkanes into the lungs.
There is no home-treatment antidote for gasoline poisoning; call a poison control center. Liquid alkanes with approximately 5—16 carbon atoms per molecule wash away natural skin oils and cause drying and chapping of the skin, while heavier liquid alkanes those with approximately 17 or more carbon atoms per molecule act as emollients skin softeners.
Such alkane mixtures as mineral oil and petroleum jelly can be applied as a protective film. We begin our study of organic chemistry with the alkanes, compounds containing only two elements, carbon and hydrogen, and having only single bonds. There are several other kinds of hydrocarbons, distinguished by the types of bonding between carbon atoms and by the properties that result from that bonding.
Later in this chapter we will examine hydrocarbons with double bonds, with triple bonds, and with a special kind of bonding called aromaticity. Compounds isolated from nonliving systems, such as rocks and ores, the atmosphere, and the oceans, were labeled inorganic.
For many years, scientists thought organic compounds could be made by only living organisms because they possessed a vital force found only in living systems. What he expected is described by the following equation. This result led to a series of experiments in which a wide variety of organic compounds were made from inorganic starting materials.
The vital force theory gradually went away as chemists learned that they could make many organic compounds in the laboratory. Today organic chemistry is the study of the chemistry of the carbon compounds, and inorganic chemistry is the study of the chemistry of all other elements. It may seem strange that we divide chemistry into two branches—one that considers compounds of only one element and one that covers the plus remaining elements. However, this division seems more reasonable when we consider that of tens of millions of compounds that have been characterized, the overwhelming majority are carbon compounds.
The word organic has different meanings. Organic fertilizer, such as cow manure, is organic in the original sense; it is derived from living organisms. Organic foods generally are foods grown without synthetic pesticides or fertilizers. Organic chemistry is the chemistry of compounds of carbon. Carbon is unique among the other elements in that its atoms can form stable covalent bonds with each other and with atoms of other elements in a multitude of variations. The resulting molecules can contain from one to millions of carbon atoms.
We begin with the simplest members of a family and then move on to molecules that are organic in the original sense—that is, they are made by and found in living organisms. These complex molecules all containing carbon determine the forms and functions of living systems and are the subject of biochemistry, a topic presented in Chapter 6 "Carbohydrates" through Chapter 11 "Metabolic Pathways and Energy Production".
Organic compounds, like inorganic compounds, obey all the natural laws. Often there is no clear distinction in the chemical or physical properties among organic and inorganic molecules. Nevertheless, it is useful to compare typical members of each class, as in Table 1. Keep in mind, however, that there are exceptions to every category in this table. To further illustrate typical differences among organic and inorganic compounds, Table 1.
Many compounds can be classified as organic or inorganic by the presence or absence of certain typical properties, as illustrated in Table 1.
Table 1. Which compound is likely organic and which is likely inorganic? The simplest organic compounds are composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms only. As we know, there are several different kinds of hydrocarbons. They are distinguished by the types of bonding between carbon atoms and the properties that result from that bonding. Hydrocarbons with only carbon-to-carbon single bonds C—C and existing as a continuous chain of carbon atoms also bonded to hydrogen atoms are called alkanes or saturated hydrocarbons.
Saturated , in this case, means that each carbon atom is bonded to four other atoms hydrogen or carbon —the most possible; there are no double or triple bonds in the molecules. For more information about fats and oils, see Chapter 7 "Lipids", Section 7. The flat representations shown do not accurately portray bond angles or molecular geometry.
Methane has a tetrahedral shape that chemists often portray with wedges indicating bonds coming out toward you and dashed lines indicating bonds that go back away from you. An ordinary solid line indicates a bond in the plane of the page. Methane CH 4 , ethane C 2 H 6 , and propane C 3 H 8 are the beginning of a series of compounds in which any two members in a sequence differ by one carbon atom and two hydrogen atoms—namely, a CH 2 unit.
The first 10 members of this series are given in Table 1. Consider the series in Figure 1. The sequence starts with C 3 H 8 , and a CH 2 unit is added in each step moving up the series.
Any family of compounds in which adjacent members differ from each other by a definite factor here a CH 2 group is called a homologous series. The members of such a series, called homologs , have properties that vary in a regular and predictable manner. The principle of homology gives organization to organic chemistry in much the same way that the periodic table gives organization to inorganic chemistry. Instead of a bewildering array of individual carbon compounds, we can study a few members of a homologous series and from them deduce some of the properties of other compounds in the series.
Each succeeding formula incorporates one carbon atom and two hydrogen atoms more than the previous formula. Using this formula, we can write a molecular formula for any alkane with a given number of carbon atoms. In the homologous series of alkanes, what is the molecular formula for the member just above C 8 H 18? Use the general formula for alkanes to write the molecular formula of the alkane with 12 carbon atoms. What compounds contain fewer carbon atoms than C 3 H 8 and are its homologs?
What compounds contain five to eight carbon atoms and are homologs of C 4 H 10? We can write the structure of butane C 4 H 10 by stringing four carbon atoms in a row,. The compound butane has this structure, but there is another way to put 4 carbon atoms and 10 hydrogen atoms together. Place 3 of the carbon atoms in a row and then branch the fourth one off the middle carbon atom:. Now we add enough hydrogen atoms to give each carbon four bonds.
There is a hydrocarbon that corresponds to this structure, which means that two different compounds have the same molecular formula: C 4 H Different compounds having the same molecular formula are called isomers. The compound with this branched chain is called isobutane Figure 1. The ball-and-stick models of these two compounds show them to be isomers; both have the molecular formula C 4 H Notice that C 4 H 10 is depicted with a bent chain in Figure 1.
The four-carbon chain may be bent in various ways because the groups can rotate freely about the C—C bonds. However, this rotation does not change the identity of the compound.
It is important to realize that bending a chain does not change the identity of the compound; all of the following represent the same compound:. The formula of isobutane shows a continuous chain of three carbon atoms only, with the fourth attached as a branch off the middle carbon atom of the continuous chain.
Unlike C 4 H 10 , the compounds methane CH 4 , ethane C 2 H 6 , and propane C 3 H 8 do not exist in isomeric forms because there is only one way to arrange the atoms in each formula so that each carbon atom has four bonds.
Next beyond C 4 H 10 in the homologous series is pentane. Each compound has the same molecular formula: C 5 H The compound at the far left is pentane because it has all five carbon atoms in a continuous chain. The compound in the middle is isopentane; like isobutane, it has a one CH 3 branch off the second carbon atom of the continuous chain. Although all three have the same molecular formula, they have different properties, including boiling points: pentane, A continuous unbranched chain of carbon atoms is often called a straight chain even though the tetrahedral arrangement about each carbon gives it a zigzag shape.
Straight-chain alkanes are sometimes called normal alkanes , and their names are given the prefix n -. For example, butane is called n -butane. We will not use that prefix here because it is not a part of the system established by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.
In alkanes, can there be a two-carbon branch off the second carbon atom of a four-carbon chain? A student is asked to write structural formulas for two different hydrocarbons having the molecular formula C 5 H She writes one formula with all five carbon atoms in a horizontal line and the other with four carbon atoms in a line, with a CH 3 group extending down from the first attached to the third carbon atom.
Do these structural formulas represent different molecular formulas? Explain why or why not. No; the branch would make the longest continuous chain of five carbon atoms. Briefly identify the important distinctions between a straight-chain alkane and a branched-chain alkane. How are butane and isobutane related? How do they differ? Indicate whether the structures in each set represent the same compound or isomers.
Straight-chain alkanes and branched-chain alkanes have different properties as well as different structures. We use several kinds of formulas to describe organic compounds. A molecular formula shows only the kinds and numbers of atoms in a molecule. A structural formula shows all the carbon and hydrogen atoms and the bonds attaching them. Thus, structural formulas identify the specific isomers by showing the order of attachment of the various atoms.
The content of this report will be republished and disseminated as a four-sided lift-out document see supplementary information which will be available for inclusion in textbooks and similar publications. The basics of organic nomenclature are summarized here. There are companion documents on the nomenclature of inorganic [ 2 ] and polymer [ 3 ] chemistry, with hyperlinks to original documents. An overall summary of chemical nomenclature can be found in Principles of Chemical Nomenclatur e [ 4 ]. Comprehensive detail can be found in Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry , colloquially known as the Blue Book [ 5 ], and in the related publications for inorganic compounds the Red Book [ 6 ], and polymers the Purple Book [ 7 ]. It should be noted that many compounds may have non-systematic or semi-systematic names and IUPAC rules also allow for more than one systematic name in many cases.
As with ionic compounds, the system for naming covalent compounds enables chemists to write the molecular formula from the name and vice versa. This and the following section describe the rules for naming simple covalent compounds, beginning with inorganic compounds and then turning to simple organic compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen. When chemists synthesize a new compound, they may not yet know its molecular or structural formula. In such cases, they usually begin by determining its empirical formula, the relative numbers of atoms of the elements in a compound, reduced to the smallest whole numbers. Because the empirical formula is based on experimental measurements of the numbers of atoms in a sample of the compound, it shows only the ratios of the numbers of the elements present.
Chemical nomenclature can be frustrating to learn. The language contains archaic terms that are past their useful prime, but are lodged deeply in the language of chemistry and almost impossible to excise at this point. Vicinal and Geminal vic — and gem-. This leaves students that are probably way too attention-detailed for their own good to have trip up a lot on things that could have easily been explained but never were.
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The empirical and molecular formulas discussed in the preceding section are precise and informative, but they have some disadvantages. First, they are inconvenient for routine verbal communication. In such cases, it is necessary for the compounds to have different names that distinguish among the possible arrangements. Many compounds, particularly those that have been known for a relatively long time, have more than one name: a common name sometimes several , and a systematic name, which is the name assigned by adhering to specific rules. Like the names of most elements, the common names of chemical compounds generally have historical origins, although they often appear to be unrelated to the compounds of interest. For example, the systematic name for KNO 3 is potassium nitrate, but its common name is saltpeter.
IUPAC nomenclature is based on naming a molecule's longest chain of set of steps for naming organic compounds can be applied to all simple structures.
MH SET syllabus has been released. Atomic orbitals, electronic configuration of atoms L-S coupling and the periodic properties of elements, ionic radii, ionization potential, electron affinity, electronegativity, concept of hybridization. Molecular orbitals and electronic configuration of homonuclear and heteronuclear diatomic molecules. Oxidation numbers, Redox potentials, Electrochemical series, Redox indicators.
The names " caffeine " and " 3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione " both signify the same chemical. The systematic name encodes the structure and composition of the caffeine molecule in some detail, and provides an unambiguous reference to this compound, whereas the name "caffeine" just names it. These advantages make the systematic name far superior to the common name when absolute clarity and precision are required.
Ether , any of a class of organic compounds characterized by an oxygen atom bonded to two alkyl or aryl groups. Ethers are similar in structure to alcohols , and both ethers and alcohols are similar in structure to water. In an alcohol one hydrogen atom of a water molecule is replaced by an alkyl group, whereas in an ether both hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl or aryl groups.
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Make sure that your printout includes all content from the page.Tmobcetliwic1982 23.05.2021 at 01:15
Red Book and the editors of Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, IUPAC of a wide range of simple inorganic compounds, ions and radicals (in Table IX).Charlot S. 28.05.2021 at 19:32
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body: IUPAC Division of Chemical Nomenclature and Structure · Representation. The boundaries between 'organic' and 'inorganic' compounds are blurred. Table 2: Multiplicative prefixes for simple and complicated entities. No. Simple.