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Production Logging Interpretation And Analysis Pdf

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Catala, G.

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Production Logging FEB08

Introduction Production logging encompasses a number of cased hole logging measurements usually run in completed injection or production wells to evaluate the performance of the well itself or of the reservoir. Although the most common application of production logging is to obtain the well flow profile, a measure of the distribution of fluid flow into or out of the wellbore, there are numerous other applications, such as detecting channels or leaks.

The chapter is organized according to the logging environment or logging objective. First, the use of temperature, radioactive tracer, and spinner flowmeter logs for measuring flow profiles in single-phase flow is described. Then, the more difficult application of logging in multiphase flow is treated, introducing the basket flowmeter, density, and capacitance logs that are used in this environment.

Finally, production logging techniques for completion evaluation are considered. For a more complete treatment of the logging methods presented here, the reader is referred to Hill []. A temperature log is a measurement of the temperature in the well as a function of depth -a typical temperature log from a gas production well is shown in Figure 1 [Atlas Wireline Services, The differential curve is recorded to accentuate changes in temperature behavior.

Often, temperature logs will be run both with the well flowing and with the well shut-in, since a shut-in period will sometimes result in larger temperature anomalies at injection or production intervals. The temperature in a well depends on many factors, including the temperature of the surrounding formations, the wellbore flow conditions, the heat transfer characteristics of the completion, and fluid movements near the wellbore.

The natural temperature distribution in the earth is called the geothermal temperature profile. Because of the heat transfer from the earths interior to the atmosphere, the temperature in the earths crust increases with depth, leading to a geothermal temperature profile such as that shown in Figure 2 [Connolly, ] from a region in Canada.

Knowledge of the geothermal temperature profile is often necessary for temperature log interpretation. Also, the geothermal gradient is generally assumed to be constant when interpreting temperature logs. When significant variations in lithology 4 occur, as in Fig. When fluids are injected or produced through a wellbore, the temperature is perturbed from the geothermal temperature. In general, fluid injection will cool the wellbore relative to the surrounding formations, while fluid production leads to wellbore temperatures that are higher than the surroundings, as illustrated in Fig.

The function f t in Eq. Equation 4 can be used to calculate the wellbore temperature as a function of depth above the zones where fluid is entering or leaving the wellbore while Eq. No simple solution exists for the temperature behavior in such regions, and qualitative methods are generally applied to interpret temperature logs. In injection wells, the injected fluid will usually be cooler than the reservoir. The injection of large volumes of cool fluid into the reservoir creates a cool region around the 8 wellbore that can be detected with temperature logs.

When the well is shut-in, the wellbore will begin to warm towards the geothermal temperature, but in the injection zones, this warming is slower than elsewhere because of the bank of cool fluid around the wellbore.

Although the base of the injection interval is easily identified on both the flowing and shut-in temperature profiles, the top of the injection interval can usually only be identified with the shut-in log. When a free gas phase is flowing in the reservoir, significant cooling of the gas may occur in the near-wellbore vicinity due to Joule-Thomson cooling.

When this occurs, gas entries are identified as the locations of cool anomalies on a temperature log Fig. Joule-Thomson cooling will be more significant for relatively low bottomhole pressures, high production rates, and high drawdown. Gas-entry locations identified by cool regions on a temperature log In oil production wells, the temperature of the oil entering the wellbore will be the geothermal temperature at the depth or slightly higher because of frictional heating.

The temperature will vary little across individual production intervals; however. Production Logging Measurements and Analysis. Download for free Report this document.

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Production logging

An accurate interpretation of the fluid production profile is the essential scientific step required for the dynamic monitoring and management of a reservoir. Currently, an accurate interpretation of conventional logging is generally available for vertical wells. However, high-accuracy interpretation is still a blank for horizontal wells, especially for those wells with low production. Therefore, it is of great importance to develop a new model that can efficiently improve the interpretation accuracy of horizontal wells' production profiles. Practically, it was observed from experiments that, for multiphase flow in a horizontal well, the flow pattern changes significantly with the varied inclination angle along the well trajectory. This is because the flow pattern is critically related to the flow rate and the measured phase flow data i. Based on the above observations, a new methodology is proposed to interpret horizontal wells' production profiles with the same inclination angle.

Appropriate estimation of permeability is considered as one of the significant concerns of petroleum industries. Due to the growing demand for hydrocarbon fossil fuels in numerous industries, Petroleum Engineers always try to provide holistic and sustainable solutions to measure this parameter more accurately and to calculate the proper original oil in place OOIP and initial reserve. Hence, this accuracy estimation helps engineers whether the production and exploration operations are profitable or not and it might virtually eliminate the unnecessary expenditures. The term production logging tools henceforth; PLT involve a wide variety of measurement tools and many sensors. It, too, carries interpretation tools which evaluate the formation properties, in respect of the way PLTs would analyze the formation fluid movements inside and outside of the wellbore and subsequently estimate the production flow rate for each layer. On the other hand, it gives production and completion engineers the chance to investigate the appropriate efficiency of production and perforation processes to organize the remediation methodologies or preplan proper designing for modifying completion procedures which have based on the production logging tools interpretation.

Production Logging.pdf

Chandran, T. Production logging in horizontal wells is always challenging compared to vertical wells. These challenges include the physical deployment of the tools, presence of restrictions along the horizontal section that complicates the analysis, the huge volume of data from different tools and modes that should be interpreted, and later to make meaningful interpretation from these analyzed data. The presence of the three phase fluid flow will further complicate production analysis. On the other hand, changes in the flow pattern laterally over the horizontal section result in uneven increase or decrease in the fluid rates.

The measuring instruments have some errors in the measurement of high water cut production wells, and many domestic oil fields are also in high water cut state. The measured data from the conventional production logging instrument are all almost inaccurate. This project has designed a staggered probe array flow meter well logging apparatus based on the characteristic of electromagnetic wave specific retention meter that can fully cover the wellbore fluid and improve flow measurement accuracy. Directional well drilling technology is becoming more and more perfect. Related completion technology is also constantly improved [ 1 ].

Introduction Production logging encompasses a number of cased hole logging measurements usually run in completed injection or production wells to evaluate the performance of the well itself or of the reservoir. Although the most common application of production logging is to obtain the well flow profile, a measure of the distribution of fluid flow into or out of the wellbore, there are numerous other applications, such as detecting channels or leaks. The chapter is organized according to the logging environment or logging objective. First, the use of temperature, radioactive tracer, and spinner flowmeter logs for measuring flow profiles in single-phase flow is described.

Thousands of high-angle and horizontal wells have been drilled in the last ten years. As a result, there are many mature fields with complex well production problems. For decades, production logs have been used in new wells to optimize ultimate recovery and to help avoid potential production problems. In older wells, these logs aid in diagnosing declining production and planning remedial work. Which zones are producing oil, water and gas?

Production Logging Measurements and Analysis

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Design and Implementation of the Array Logging Tool on Horizontal Production Logging

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