File Name: abnormal psychology in context voices and perspectives .zip
Had not told her something else might be waiting. To race up the path lined with apple trees in spring bloom. To slam their front door shut behind her.
Distinguish between disordered and normal thoughts, feelings, and behaviors using psychological criteria. Abnormal psychology is the study of abnormal thoughts, behaviors, or internal experiences in order to describe, predict, explain, and treat these patterns of functioning. The DSM is currently in its 5th edition DSM-V and has been designed for use in a wide variety of contexts and across clinical settings including inpatient, outpatient, partial hospital, clinic, private practice, and primary care.
A psychological disorder is a condition characterized by abnormal thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Psychopathology is the study of psychological disorders, including their symptoms, etiology i. Although consensus can be difficult, it is important for mental-health professionals to agree on what kinds of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors constitute the presence of a psychological disorder.
Certain patterns of behavior and inner experience can easily be labeled as abnormal and signify some kind of psychological disturbance. A person who washes their hands 40 times per day and a person who claims to hear the voices of demons exhibit behaviors and inner experiences that most would regard as abnormal.
However, consider the nervousness someone feels when talking to a person they are attracted to or the loneliness and longing for home a freshman might experience during their first semester of college—these feelings may not be regularly present, but they fall in a range most would consider normal.
So, what kinds of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors represent a true psychological disorder? Psychologists work to distinguish psychological disorders from inner experiences and behaviors that are merely situational, idiosyncratic, or unconventional.
Behaviors, thoughts, and inner experiences that are atypical, distressful, dysfunctional, and sometimes even dangerous may be signs of a disorder. For example, if you ask a classmate for a date and you are rejected, you probably would feel a little dejected. Such feelings would be normal. If you felt extremely depressed—so much so that you lost interest in activities, had difficulty eating or sleeping, felt utterly worthless, and contemplated suicide—your feelings would be atypical, would deviate from the norm, and could signify the presence of a psychological disorder.
However, simply because something is atypical does not necessarily mean it is disordered. Similarly, violating cultural expectations is not, in and of itself, a satisfactory means of identifying the presence of a psychological disorder. Since behavior varies from one culture to another, what may be considered appropriate in one culture may not be viewed as such in other cultures. For example, making eye contact with others can signify honesty and attention in one culture while being a sign of aggression in another Pazain, Hallucinations seeing or hearing things that are not physically present in Western societies are readily labeled as a sign of psychological disorder.
In other cultures, however, such visions may be regarded as normal experiences that are respected and valued Bourguignon, It is also important to recognize that cultural norms change over time: what might be considered typical in a society at one time may no longer be viewed that way later—similar to how fashion trends from one era may elicit quizzical looks decades later.
Inner experiences and behaviors that are atypical or violate social norms could signify the presence of a disorder.
The harm may include significant internal anguish e. According to the American Psychiatric Association APA, , a psychological disorder is a condition characterized by the following criteria:.
The diagnosis and classification of psychological disorders is essential in studying and treating psychopathology. The diagnostic manual includes a total of specific diagnosable disorders, each described in detail, including its symptoms, prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidity. Over time, the number of diagnosable conditions listed in the DSM has grown steadily, prompting criticism from some.
Nevertheless, the diagnostic criteria in the DSM are more explicit than those of any other system, which makes the DSM system highly desirable for both clinical diagnosis and research. This graph shows the breakdown of psychological disorders from the DSM-IV in , comparing the percentage prevalence among adult males and adult females in the United States. Major depressive disorder has the highest total prevalence among males and females.
Positive psychology stems from the humanistic psychology of the 20th century and focuses on optimizing psychological health and well-being.
Positive psychology is the scientific study of optimal human functioning. The field of psychology as a science has been primarily dedicated to addressing mental illness rather than mental wellness; its research programs and application models have dealt mainly with how people are impaired rather than how they thrive.
Rather than detail mental illness, positive psychology aims to study the psychology of people in good mental health. Positive psychology has roots in the humanistic psychology of the 20th century, which focused heavily on happiness and fulfillment.
Beyond simply the brain and nervous system, humanistic psychology also takes individual subjective experience into account, and as such it seeks to understand human beings and their behavior through qualitative research.
In fact, many humanist psychologists completely reject a scientific approach, arguing that turning human experience into measurements and numbers strips it of all meaning and relevance to lived existence.
One of the founding theorists behind this school of thought was Carl Rogers, whose focus was to ensure that developmental processes led to healthier, if not more creative, personality functioning. Both Rogers and Maslow introduced this positive, humanistic psychology in response to what they viewed as the overly pessimistic view of psychoanalysis.
Fritz Perls, who helped create and develop Gestalt therapy, also developed theories and practices pertaining to human happiness and flourishing. Maslow formulated a theory that portrays personal needs or motives as a hierarchy, meaning that basic or lower-level needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs become important or motivating , Once these needs are met, safety and security needs such as stability and protection become important.
After both physiological and safety needs are met, love and belonging needs emerge: people turn their attention to making friends and cultivating positive personal relationships. The next level of needs are esteem needs, which are concerned with gaining recognition and respect from others and self. Once these four levels of needs are met, Maslow believed people turn toward what he called self-actualization.
People who are motivated by self-actualization have a variety of positive qualities, and Maslow went to some lengths to identify and describe those individuals by analyzing information about them, both through written primary sources e.
Self-actualizing individuals, he argued, value deep personal relationships with others, but also value solitude; they have a sense of humor, but not one used against others; they accept themselves as well as others; they are spontaneous, humble, creative, and ethical.
Maslow felt that true self-actualization is rare, but his research led to advancements in humanistic psychology and the later field of positive psychology. Positive and humanistic psychology are both interested in positive aspects of psychological health and well-being, focusing on such phenomena as creativity, free will, and positive human potential.
These fields of psychology advocate the belief that all people are inherently good, and adopt a holistic approach to human existence. They often acknowledge spiritual aspiration as an integral part of the human psyche.
Positive psychology is concerned with three issues: positive emotions, positive individual traits, and positive institutions. Finally, positive institutions are based on strengths to better a community of people.
Psychodynamic theory studies the psychological forces underlying human behavior, feelings, and emotions. Psychodynamic theory is an approach to psychology that studies the psychological forces underlying human behavior, feelings, and emotions, and how they may relate to early childhood experience.
This theory is especially interested in the dynamic relations between conscious and unconscious motivation, and asserts that behavior is the product of underlying conflicts over which people often have little awareness. Psychodynamic theory was born in with the works of German scientist Ernst von Brucke, who supposed that all living organisms are energy systems governed by the principle of the conservation of energy. Sigmund Freud : Sigmund Freud developed the field of psychoanalytic psychology and the psychosexual theory of human development.
The concept of the unconscious was central: Freud postulated a cycle in which ideas are repressed but continue to operate unconsciously in the mind, and then reappear in consciousness under certain circumstances. Hysteria was an ancient diagnosis that was primarily used for women with a wide variety of symptoms, including physical symptoms and emotional disturbances with no apparent physical cause. Today many researchers believe that her illness was not psychological, as Freud suggested, but either neurological or organic.
The id is the unconscious part that is the cauldron of raw drives, such as for sex or aggression. The ego, which has conscious and unconscious elements, is the rational and reasonable part of personality. Its role is to maintain contact with the outside world to keep the individual in touch with society, and to do this it mediates between the conflicting tendencies of the id and the superego.
Like the ego, the superego has conscious and unconscious elements. When all three parts of the personality are in dynamic equilibrium, the individual is thought to be mentally healthy. However, if the ego is unable to mediate between the id and the superego, an imbalance is believed to occur in the form of psychological distress. The information in our unconscious affects our behavior, although we are unaware of it.
Freud believed that each of us must pass through a series of stages during childhood, and that if we lack proper nurturing during a particular stage, we may become stuck or fixated in that stage.
Jung focused less on infantile development and conflict between the id and superego and instead focused more on integration between different parts of the person. Jung created some of the best-known psychological concepts, including the archetype, the collective unconscious, the complex, and synchronicity.
At present, psychodynamics is an evolving multidisciplinary field that analyzes and studies human thought processes, response patterns, and influences. Research in this field focuses on areas such as:. Psychodynamic therapy, in which patients become increasingly aware of dynamic conflicts and tensions that are manifesting as a symptom or challenge in their lives, is an approach to therapy that is still commonly used today.
Behaviorism is an approach to psychology that focuses on observable behaviors that people learn from their environments. Behaviorism is an approach to psychology that emerged in the early 20th century as a reaction to the psychoanalytic theory of the time. Psychoanalytic theory often had difficulty making predictions that could be tested using rigorous experimental methods.
The behaviorist school of thought maintains that behaviors can be described scientifically without recourse either to internal physiological events or to hypothetical constructs such as thoughts and beliefs. Rather than focusing on underlying conflicts, behaviorism focuses on observable, overt behaviors that are learned from the environment.
Its application to the treatment of mental problems is known as behavior modification. Learning is seen as behavior change molded by experience; it is accomplished largely through either classical or operant conditioning described below.
The primary developments in behaviorism came from the work of Ivan Pavlov, John B. Watson, Edward Lee Thorndike, and B. The Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov was widely known for describing the phenomenon now known as classical conditioning. In his famous s experiment, he trained his dogs to salivate on command by associating the ringing of a bell with the delivery of food.
Watson, the idea of conditioning as an automatic form of learning became a key concept in the development of behaviorism. Ivan Pavlov : Ivan Pavlov is best known for his classical conditioning experiments with dogs. John B. In this experiment, he used classical conditioning to teach a nine-month-old boy to be afraid of a white toy rat by associating the rat with a sudden loud noise.
This study demonstrated how emotions could become conditioned responses. Skinner, describes a form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened depending on its association with either positive or negative consequences.
The strengthening of a response occurs through reinforcement. Skinner described two types of reinforcement: positive reinforcement, which is the introduction of a positive consequence such as food, pleasurable activities, or attention from others, and negative reinforcement, which is the removal of a negative consequence such as pain or a loud noise.
Skinner saw human behavior as shaped by trial and error through reinforcement and punishment, without any reference to inner conflicts or perceptions. In his theory, mental disorders represented maladaptive behaviors that were learned and could be unlearned through behavior modification.
In the second half of the 20th century, behaviorism was expanded through advances in cognitive theories. While behaviorism and cognitive schools of psychological thought may not agree theoretically, they have complemented each other in practical therapeutic applications like cognitive-behavioral therapy CBT , which has been used widely in the treatment of many different mental disorders, such as phobias, PTSD, and addiction.
This later gave rise to applied behavior analysis ABA , in which operant conditioning techniques are used to reinforce positive behaviors and punish unwanted behaviors.
Abnormal Psychology: The Science and Treatment of Psychological Disorders comprises of an equalization and mixing of exploration and clinical application, the utilization of standards as a sorting out guideline, and including the student in the sorts of certifiable critical thinking occupied with by clinicians and researchers. Understudies discover that psychopathology is best perceived by considering different points of view and that these fluctuating viewpoints give the most clear bookkeeping of the reasons for these issues just as the most ideal medicines. Get free access to countless free textbooks written by academics from the world's top universities, all on one. You could attempt to discover outstanding publication by the title. Loose-leaf by Kring, Ann M.
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Abnormal Psychology in Context book. Read reviews from world's largest community for readers. This engaging collection of more than 40 first-person accou.
Abnormal Psychology in Context: Voices and Perspectives is a unique collection of first-person accounts and narratives written by individuals who live with a psychological disorder and by therapists, relatives, and others who have direct experience with someone suffering from a psychological disorder. These individuals describe in touching, informative, and poignant ways their experiences with the disorder and how it has affected their lives. The narratives illustrate psychological disorders and issues covered in most abnormal psychology textbooks.
Under this definition of abnormality, a person's trait, thinking or behavior is classified as abnormal if it is rare or statistically unusual. With this definition it is necessary to be clear about how rare a trait or behavior needs to be before we class it as abnormal. For instance one may say that an individual who has an IQ below or above the average level of IQ in society is abnormal. However this definition obviously has limitations, it fails to recognize the desirability of the particular behavior.
Ужас, правда. Беккер кивнул. - Ты же сказала, что не колешься. Девушка засмеялась: - Это же чудо-маркер. Я чуть кожу не содрала, пытаясь его стереть. Да и краска вонючая.
Его дыхание стало ровным. - Сьюзан. - Голос его прозвучал резко, но спокойно. - Тебе удалось стереть электронную почту Хейла. - Нет, - сконфуженно ответила. - Ты нашла ключ.
Светлый силуэт двигался по центральному проходу среди моря черных одежд. Он не должен знать, что я. - Халохот улыбнулся. - Может считать себя покойником. И он задвигал крошечными металлическими контактами на кончиках пальцев, стремясь как можно быстрее сообщить американским заказчикам хорошую новость.
Несмотря ни на что, АН Б это стоило больших денег. Фонд электронных границ усилил свое влияние, доверие к Фонтейну в конгрессе резко упало, и, что еще хуже, агентство перестало быть анонимным. Внезапно домохозяйки штата Миннесота начали жаловаться компаниям Америка онлайн и Вундеркинд, что АНБ, возможно, читает их электронную почту, - хотя агентству, конечно, не было дела до рецептов приготовления сладкого картофеля. Провал Стратмора дорого стоил агентству, и Мидж чувствовала свою вину - не потому, что могла бы предвидеть неудачу коммандера, а потому, что эти действия были предприняты за спиной директора Фонтейна, а Мидж платили именно за то, чтобы она эту спину прикрывала. Директор старался в такие дела не вмешиваться, и это делало его уязвимым, а Мидж постоянно нервничала по этому поводу.
Запущенный во второй раз Следопыт все еще продолжал поиск, но теперь это уже не имело значения. Сьюзан знала, что он принесет ей в зубах: GHALEcrypto.
Скоро, подумал он, совсем. Как хищник, идущий по следам жертвы, Халохот отступил в заднюю часть собора, а оттуда пошел на сближение - прямо по центральному проходу. Ему не было нужды выискивать Беккера в толпе, выходящей из церкви: жертва в ловушке, все сложилось на редкость удачно.
Зачем вам деньги? - спросил. Я не собираюсь оплачивать твое пристрастие к наркотикам, если речь идет об. - Я хочу вернуться домой, - сказала блондинка.
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