File Name: the roots and development of the evangelical church of eritrea .zip
Christianity was introduced to Ethiopia in the 4th century, and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church called Tewahdo in Ethiopia is one of the oldest organized Christian bodies in the world.
The two Christian missionaries that showed up in the ancient northeastern African empire of Axum in the fourth century could not have been more unlikely. But within a few years, an unexpected chain of events cast religious and political power into their hands.
While the region had been familiar with Christianity for decades, the religion was soon to spread across Axum. Today, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church these young men founded more than 15 centuries ago has survived estrangement from Rome, the spread of Islam, and repeated colonialization attempts.
In a continent where Western Protestant theology and Catholicism looms large, the history of this institution offers a look at African Christianity that has existed for nearly as long as the church has itself. At its height, the Axumite Empire A. Due to its proximity to the Middle East, its strategic location adjacent to the Red Sea, and its open and outward-looking civilization, it played an important role in regional affairs. Between the third and the sixth centuries, the kingdom enjoyed control over large areas encompassing modern-day northern Sudan, southern Egypt, Djibouti, Yemen, and southern Saudi Arabia.
Axum was a wealthy empire known for its sophisticated irrigation, masonry, and its unique currency. Indeed, archeologists have discovered Axumites coins as far away as India. Axum also drew the respect of the Roman Empire.
By the fourth century, the relations between Byzantines and Axum become so significant that Constantine proclaimed equal treatment of Axumites and Romans. Axum was also known for its writing system. Today, Eritrea and Ethiopia have the distinction of being the only two countries in Africa which use their own indigenous writing system: the Fidel Geez. In fact, one of the earliest translations of the Bible was in Geez, a Semitic language, which is still used in Eritrean and Ethiopian liturgies.
While not part of the biblical canon, the book of Enoch is only wholly extant in the Geez language. Much later, Semitic languages Hebrew and Arabic developed their own linguistic conventions to represent vowels. Axum was also respected for its justice-oriented political system. The Abyssinians who we know today as Ethiopians and Eritreans were known by the Greeks and Arabs as people of justice.
Abyssinia was also an early home to the three Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The Jewish community still exists today, although many emigrated to Israel in the s.
One of the earliest Christian baptisms recorded in Scripture was the Ethiopian eunuch in Acts 8 who took his new faith with him to his homeland. Islam came to Axum before it went to its second holiest city, Medina. Earlier that year, the Romans had infringed on a treaty that allowed them to use the port of Adulis. In time, the king named Aedesius his cupbearer and Frumentius his treasurer and secretary.
There are oral and written traditions that show that early church fathers Mark, Matthew, and Bartholomew preached the gospel in Abyssinia. As noted above, the Book of Acts recounts the story of an Ethiopian eunuch who is baptized by the apostle Philip and returns home to evangelize his countrymen.
Further, the port of Adulis, located on the coast of modern-day Eritrea, was the primary transit harbor between Byzantium and India and, as such, had many interactions with Christian merchants. While the number of Christians that existed in Axum in the fourth century is unknown, one can infer that small pockets had existed, particularly in the urban areas.
Before his consecration as the first bishop, as treasurer and advisor to the Queen Regent, Frumentius encouraged these urban Christians to evangelize and practice their faith openly. Axum also made this decision more than 50 years before Rome.
Frumentius baptized the two brothers he had helped raise, both of whom would become kings of Axum. Under the rule of Ezana, the first brother to become king, Axum also became the first in the world to engrave the sign of the cross on its currency. Once Christianity was adopted by the royal family, it quickly spread throughout the empire.
Frumentius built several churches and traveled throughout the country to evangelize, chronicled in his hagiography, Gedle Abba Selema. Like the story of the beginning of Christianity in other regions, the faith first took root in the urban, commercial, and political centers and then moved outward to the rural areas.
Axumites were already familiar with the idea of monotheism. American scholar W. Head, a British officer, who aptly captured the spread of Christianity in Abyssinia. The absence of Christian persecution sets Axumite Christianity apart from those in the Greco-Roman world, where the faith was perceived as a threat to the existing order. But in the case of Axum, the kings themselves had been brought up in the faith and consequently did not feel as though Christianity was an outside force thrust upon them.
Christianity heralded a new age in Abyssinia—the birth of advanced learning. A new class of people emerged fully devoted to learning and the cause of Christianity. As the first vocalized Semitic language, Geez simplified and improved reading and writing. The biblical translation that started in the fourth century set in motion other literary works in philosophy, history, and medicine. Instead of writing on stones and papyri, scribes turned to leather, a more portable medium that enabled more Axumites to learn to read and write.
In recognition of this transformative era, Frumentius, the first metropolitan bishop of Axum, was fittingly renamed Kesate Birhan revealer of light and Aba Selama father of peace.
As the church grew, it dovetailed its Christian heritage with its unique cultural and social settings, developing an indigenous form of Christianity with strong Judaic overtones and its own cadre of saints. Some of the most prolific were the Nine Saints, a group of missionaries who hailed from such cities as Antioch, Constantinople, Asia Minor, Rome, and Caesarea and arrived in Axum and played an important role in spreading the gospel at the end of the fifth century.
Widely referred to as the Second Evangelization, the arrival of these men helped to solidify an indigenous Christian and African identity. Their accomplishments included completing the biblical translation into Geez initiated by Frumentius and writing the historical and philosophical books which became the bedrock of Abyssinian cultural identity.
Kaleb secured a name for himself by protecting Nestorian Christians from persecution. When the Roman cities fell under his control, he gave the people the chance to convert to Judaism or face extermination. Moved by the plight of other Christians, Kaleb sent his army to rescue these Christians and his men ultimately defeated Dhu Nuwas.
The seventh century marked the beginning of the end for Axum. The disruption of the Red Sea commerce, the Beja invasion which pushed the Axumite frontier further south, and, perhaps most significantly, the rise of Islam contributed to the decline of the empire. Muhammad had singled out Axum early on as a place that might be amenable to Islam, believing that its monotheistic beliefs would make it easier for Abyssinians to embrace Islam.
He sent a letter to the Abyssinian king emphasizing the prophethood of Jesus and the virginity and purity of Mary.
While some Christians did convert, most did not. Today, the Tewahdo Church has the most adherents of all the Oriental Orthodox churches and is second only to the Russian Orthodox in size among all Eastern Orthodoxy. Most of the Oriental churches were eclipsed by the Muslim Crescent and their adherents relegated into minority status.
The Tewahdo Church, however, stayed autonomous despite its centuries-long isolation from the rest of Christendom. The topography of the country, the readiness of its peoples to defend its heritage, and its relatively friendly relations with Islam enabled Abyssinia to maintain its sovereignty. This isolation may also have contributed to a theological rift between the Tewahdo Church and the rest of Christianity.
This view, deemed heretical by Western and Eastern churches at the Council of Chalcedon in , is maintained today by the Copts, the Tewahdo, and other Oriental Orthodox churches. While this view is condemned by Protestants, Catholics, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, it serves as a doctrinal indicator of the autonomy and independence of this venerable African church.
The Tewahdo church is the oldest and most venerated institution in Eritrea and Ethiopia. While Christianity is no longer the official religion of these countries , the Tewahdo church continues to guide the moral, spiritual, and intellectual lives of its more than 45 million adherents.
Semere T. He was born in Eritrea and came to the US as a refugee. He lives in Carrollton, Texas. Subscribe to CT and get one year free.
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Ethiopian and Eritrean Evangelical Christians are the result of American and European Protestant missionary work among youth who left the Orthodox Tewahedo churches because of theological differences, and later fanned by persecution against them. P'ent'ay Christians schismed from the Orthodox Tewahedo churches,  other branches of Christianity, or converted from other religions with the aid of Protestant missionaries to reform Ethiopian Christianity from what they perceived doctrinal-theological diversions. Since the creation of P'ent'ay churches and organisations, prominent movements among them have been Pentecostalism, the Baptist tradition, Lutheranism , Methodism , Presbyterianism , and the Mennonites. The term was coined in the late s and was used as a pejorative for churches that believed in the Pentecostal experience and spiritual gifts of the Holy Spirit ,  used to describe local Protestant Christians who are not members of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo and Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo churches collectively known as the Orthodox Tewahedo. The term P'ent'ay is a shortening of the word "Pentecostal"; however, it is widely used when referring to all Protestant Christians but especially Evangelical Protestant Christians whether they are actually Pentecostal by denomination or not.
Kenisha: The Roots and Development of the Evangelical Church of Eritrea Metrics. Views/Downloads. Abstract. PDF.
The two Christian missionaries that showed up in the ancient northeastern African empire of Axum in the fourth century could not have been more unlikely. But within a few years, an unexpected chain of events cast religious and political power into their hands. While the region had been familiar with Christianity for decades, the religion was soon to spread across Axum.
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Until , two LCMS Eritrean expatriate staff assisted with seminary education, theological education by extension and literacy work. This people group has experienced great social upheaval, but they are very open to the Gospel. Fifty percent of the Kunama people are Muslim and 5 percent are Christian. The church has an active media ministry and more than 1, individuals enrolled in Bible correspondence courses.
Novel marine natural products are being found in pristine reefs along 1 km of Red Sea Coast in the Horn of Africa. Traditional healers talk of herbs and plants they have used for generations for medicinal purposes. Eritrean chemical education is coming into its own in the new millennium, mirroring the emergence of the fledgling nation from European colonialism and Ethiopian annexation to independence in Thirty years of war with neighboring Ethiopia before independence, and a renewed conflict in the past two years, have left urgent infrastructure and development needs. Providing highly qualified human resources to address those needs and create new opportunities is high on the national agenda.
Christianity in Ethiopia is the largest religion in the country and dates back to the ancient Kingdom of Aksum , when the King Ezana first adopted the faith. This makes Ethiopia one of the first regions in the world to officially adopt Christianity. Various Christian denominations are now followed in the country. Ethiopia was the only region of Africa to survive the expansion of Islam as a Christian state. Religion in Ethiopia  . Religion in Ethiopia with Breakdown of Christian Denominations . The largest pre-colonial Christian church of Africa, the Ethiopian Church has a membership of 32 to 36 million,     the majority of whom live in Ethiopia,  and is thus the largest of all Oriental Orthodox churches.
Со всех сторон его окружали мужчины в пиджаках и галстуках и женщины в черных платьях и кружевных накидках на опущенных головах. Они, не замечая Халохота, шли своей дорогой, напоминая черный шуршащий ручеек. С пистолетом в руке он рвался вперед, к тупику.
От него не ускользнула ирония ситуации: он получал возможность работать в самом сердце правительства страны, которую поклялся ненавидеть до конца своих дней. Энсей решил пойти на собеседование. Сомнения, которые его одолевали, исчезли, как только он встретился с коммандером Стратмором. У них состоялся откровенный разговор о его происхождении, о потенциальной враждебности, какую он мог испытывать к Соединенным Штатам, о его планах на будущее.
Не знаю, почему Фонтейн прикидывается идиотом, но ТРАНСТЕКСТ в опасности. Там происходит что-то очень серьезное. - Мидж.
Странно, - удивленно заметил Смит. - Обычно травматическая капсула не убивает так. Иногда даже, если жертва внушительной комплекции, она не убивает вовсе. - У него было больное сердце, - сказал Фонтейн. Смит поднял брови.
В два часа ночи по воскресеньям. Она сейчас наверняка уже над Атлантикой. Беккер взглянул на часы.
- И откуда мы знаем, что именно ищем. Одно различие от природы, другое - рукотворное. Плутоний впервые был открыт… - Число, - напомнил Джабба. - Нам нужно число.
Мы успеем выспаться перед поездкой на север. Дэвид грустно вздохнул: - Потому-то я и звоню. Речь идет о нашей поездке. Нам придется ее отложить. - Что-о? - Сьюзан окончательно проснулась.
Да. Немало. - В Севилью - по делам? - настаивал Ролдан. Ясно, конечно, что это никакой не полицейский, это Клиент с большой буквы. - Дайте мне угадать: наш номер вам дал приятель.
Глаза его отсутствующе смотрели в пространство. - Странное дело, ей-богу, все эти буквы - ни на один язык не похоже. - Может быть, японский? - предположил Беккер. - Определенно .
This article was first published in Ethiopia Insight.Chedar K. 10.06.2021 at 01:04
Cite foundations of american education 16th edition pdf chandamama magazine in english pdfTanguy L. 11.06.2021 at 08:12
An international assemblage of scientists discovered the church 30 miles northeast of Aksum, the capital of the Aksumite kingdom, a trading empire that emerged in the first century A.Ansel P. 11.06.2021 at 20:55
The troubled relationship of state and religion in Eritrea.