File Name: climate change impact on hydrology and water resources .zip
Many dams and reservoirs have been built in recent decades to collect surface water and improve the management of existing water resources Figure 1. However climate projections for this region indicate a possible decrease in precipitation together with an increase in temperature that could result in increased evaporation Schilling et al. Evaluating the potential impacts of climate change on water resources is thus of particular importance in this region.
Views: Corresponding author Email: umeshjnu gmail. Singh U. K, Kumar B. Curr World Environ ;13 1. Introduction In the last few decades, increased level of carbon dioxide and radiative trace gases in the atmosphere has been observed which induce the climate change and greenhouse warming to the world.
The projection of many studies has confirmed that in next years the earth will experience with high surface temperature. However, the modification in the global hydrological cycle due to climate change, drought, flood, changes in rainfall pattern, extreme weather events and alteration in river flow and groundwater recharge Fig.
Additionally, climate change has already impacted on the various mega-deltas particularly due to sea-level rise and changes in runoff3. It is estimated that around million people live in the 40 mega-deltas globally. However, the mega-deltas including the Ganges-Brahmaputra in Bangladesh, the Mekong in Vietnam and the Nile in Egypt are most vulnerable deltas of world Fig.
The rising surface temperature of the Indian subcontinent by 0. These reports indicate that climate change has largely influenced the water resources of the Indian subcontinent.
However, in developing country like India, water demand for various sectors such as domestic, industrial and agricultural uses, has already increased in last few decades.
Therefore, present study is based on the given expected changes due to climate change over the Indian River basins and has been reviewed with studying the topography of river basin, water availability, climatic and hydrological condition. In this study, we have tried to summarise the previous studies related to Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna GBM river basins keeping in view that how the climate has changed in these river basins in recent times. Indian River Basin In India, Himalayan range is the greatest source of pure water in the form of snow that melts and transverses through 45, km long riverine networks.
Additionally, various Indian river basins are experiencing with minimal per capita water availability which is mainly due to considerable spatial variation in rainfall. Ganga River associated with some tributaries play an important role in the formation of most fertile alluvial plain. Nearly million people and almost one-tenth of the world's population live in the plains of Ganga. Shrestha et al.
Furthermore, a study reported by Nepal revealed that the highest increase rate of temperature 0. The maximum temperature trends have been observed in Nepal Central Himalayan region The projected future model showed that the annual temperature of this region would increase about 0.
The Brahmaputra River Basin The Brahmaputra River also originates from the Himalaya Kailash ranges which transverses east through the southern part of China and enter into eastern India and lastly joins with the River Ganga in Bangladesh.
The length of the Brahmaputra River is about km with having a total area of 5, 80, square kilometre. In the upper part of Brahmaputra River discharge mostly comes from the snowmelt before it enters Arunachal Pradesh. However, after it enters into the Indian states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, and Meghalaya, river experiences with heavy rainfall which contributes substantially to the river flow. Consequently, river basin experiences with alteration in flow transport of sediment and channel configuration.
Some previous studies revealed that the average annual temperature of Brahmaputra basin has increased notably in last few decades. They expected that the temperature might increase from 1. Figure 2: Influences of global hydrological cycle in context of climate change Click here to view figure. Figure 3: The projection of relative vulnerability of coastal deltas by current sea level trends up to with three different classes viz.
Impact of Climate Change on the Hydrological Regime of GBM System India has a long riverine network system which mainly belongs to Himalayan river system and draining to the major plains of the country. Subsequently, the Meghna joins with Ganges and Brahmaputra in the Chandpur and lastly drains into the Bay of Bengal The GBM River basins support the lives and livelihoods of some million people,and currently, basins have been widely utilized for drinking, irrigation, navigation, industry and hydropower generation purposes.
The combined outfall of the GBM Rivers also plays an essential role including surface and groundwater recharge, reducing saltwater intrusion, and increasing soil fertility. However, the temperature has increased in last few years, which has induced the rate of melting of glacial and snow.
Consequently, summer flows of some river systems may increase followed by are duction in flows as the glaciers disappear and snow diminishes. Figure 4: Map of Indian major river basins in context of water availability Click here to view figure. However, some studies have revealed that climate change significantly affects the hydrology and water resources of the GBM basins which might be responsible for more severe floods and drought problem in recent time. The delta regions of GBM river basin in Bangladesh and India are particularly vulnerable to future climate change.
Furthermore, Kamal et al. The results signify that the peak flow of GBM rivers may enhance about 4. Masood et al. Also, researchers have projected that the changes in mean precipitation more than The results indicate a significant increase in monsoon flow under the future climate with enhanced flood potential.
Authors have also predicted the low flows and extended drought periods over GBM basin, which could impact on water and sediment supply, irrigated agriculture and saline intrusion. Also, high erosion during an extreme event like Sidr cyclone in , a slightly less net gain of land in the Bangladesh part45 and a net loss of land in Sundarban mangroves 63 have been observed in the last few decades.
Furthermore, during the 20th century, the rate of sea level rise has significantly 0. Consequences of these changes over GBM delta are also likely to face growing water stress in different countries viz.
Figure 6: Map of Brahmaputra River basin 70 Click here to view figure. Conclusion The review has provided information about the climate change and their consequences over the water resources. The previous studies mainly signify the changes in river flows, melting of ice, precipitation, and temperature through different models.
Several studies have indicated that due to climate change, global temperature has increased significantly in last century and it will increase rapidly in next years. In the present scenario, climate change has impacted on annual discharge of rivers, global runoff, global temperature, global mean sea level, and various mega-deltas.
The mega-delta like Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna GBM delta is one of the most vulnerable deltas of world in context of climate change. The remarkable change in GBM basin climate is likely to have a significant impact on its rivers, which could enhance the flooding potential and drought problem. These impacts on GBM river basin could also influence the agricultural production, food security, and biodiversity as well as water security for Indian subcontinents. However, the assessment of climate change impact on water resources is still subject to considerable uncertainty.
Therefore, it is essential to get more details about the long-term observations of climate variables in water resources to improve regional climate models and the climate projections. We wish to thank the editor and the anonymous reviewers for their suggestions and critical comments.
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Views: Corresponding author Email: umeshjnu gmail. Singh U. K, Kumar B. Curr World Environ ;13 1.
In the Taoer River basin, these changes have directly influenced the land use pattern adjustment, wetland protection, connections between rivers and reservoirs, local social and economic development, and so forth. With historical measured runoff data and remote sensing maps of annual land use classifications, we analyzed the impacts of climate change on the runoff of the Taoer River. This study can provide a reference for the rational allocation of water resources and the adjustment of land use structure for decision makers. Currently, climate change is a global problem. Climate change intensifies the global hydrological cycle [ 1 ].
Hydrology Research 1 April ; 51 2 : — A total of contributions were submitted from 24 countries, of which 30 were given by master or PhD students. In addition, the five invited speakers gave presentations at the conference. Most of the contributions came from Nordic and Baltic countries which constitute the NHF's area of activity.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. One way for the OST to be used as a planning tool for climate change is for it to be exercised in a chain-of-models approach Figure B-1 Vogel et al. To characterize how a changing climate may affect hydrologic processes and water resources at regional scales, many studies utilize downscaled projections of future temperature and precipitation from global climate models to drive hydrologic models to estimate impacts on streamflow, sediments, and pollutants at the watershed scale. This appendix describes some of the models and methods for the first three components of this approach—global climate models GCMs , downscaling techniques, and hydrologic models—highlighting the associated challenges in projecting future impacts on water resources through the use of linked GCMs and hydrologic models.
The potential effects of climate change on the hydrology and water resources of the Colorado River basin are assessed by comparing simulated hydrologic and water resources scenarios derived from downscaled climate simulations of the U. Downscaled transient temperature and precipitation sequences were extracted from PCM simulations, and were used to drive the Variable Infiltration Capacity VIC macroscale hydrology model to produce corresponding streamflow sequences. Results for the BAU scenarios were summarized into Periods 1, 2, and 3 —,—, — Average annual temperature changes for the Colorado Riverbasin were 0. Annual hydropower output was also significantly reduced for the control and future climate simulations.
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Нужно выключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ и бежать. Она посмотрела на светящиеся мониторы Стратмора, бросилась к его письменному столу и начала нажимать на клавиши. Отключить ТРАНСТЕКСТТеперь это нетрудная задача, поскольку она находится возле командного терминала. Она вызвала нужное командное окно и напечатала: ВЫКЛЮЧИТЬ КОМПЬЮТЕР Палец привычно потянулся к клавише Ввод.
Именно это она и хотела узнать. За годы работы в АНБ до нее доходили слухи о неофициальных связях агентства с самыми искусными киллерами в мире - наемниками, выполняющими за разведывательные службы всю грязную работу. - Танкадо слишком умен, чтобы предоставить нам такую возможность, - возразил Стратмор.
Стратмор приближался к ней, его лицо казалось далеким воспоминанием. Холодные серые глаза смотрели безжизненно. Живший в ее сознании герой умер, превратился в убийцу.
Она не шевельнулась. - Ты волнуешься о Дэвиде.
По-видимому, Танкадо считал, что два эти события чем-то различались между. Выражение лица Фонтейна не изменилось. Но надежда быстро улетучивалась. Похоже, нужно было проанализировать политический фон, на котором разворачивались эти события, сравнить их и перевести это сопоставление в магическое число… и все это за пять минут. ГЛАВА 124 - Атаке подвергся последний щит.
Беккер держался той же версии: он - немецкий турист, готовый заплатить хорошие деньги за рыжеволосую, которую сегодня нанял его брат. На этот раз ему очень вежливо ответили по-немецки, но снова сказали, что рыжих девочек у них. - Keine Rotkopfe, простите. - Женщина положила трубку. Вторая попытка также ни к чему не привела.
Вы же сказали… - Мы к нему пальцем не притронулись, - успокоил ее Стратмор. - Он умер от разрыва сердца. Сегодня утром звонили из КОМИНТа.
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