File Name: international encyclopedia of ergonomics and human factors .zip
Human factors and ergonomics commonly referred to as human factors is the application of psychological and physiological principles to the engineering and design of products, processes, and systems.
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Human factors and ergonomics commonly referred to as human factors is the application of psychological and physiological principles to the engineering and design of products, processes, and systems. The goal of human factors is to reduce human error , increase productivity, and enhance safety and comfort with a specific focus on the interaction between the human and the thing of interest.
The field is a combination of numerous disciplines, such as psychology , sociology , engineering , biomechanics , industrial design , physiology , anthropometry , interaction design , visual design , user experience , and user interface design. In research, human factors employs the scientific method to study human behavior so that the resultant data may be applied to the four primary goals. In essence, it is the study of designing equipment, devices and processes that fit the human body and its cognitive abilities.
The two terms "human factors" and "ergonomics" are essentially synonymous. The International Ergonomics Association defines ergonomics or human factors as follows: .
Ergonomics or human factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design to optimize human well-being and overall system performance.
Human factors is employed to fulfill the goals of occupational health and safety and productivity. It is relevant in the design of such things as safe furniture and easy-to-use interfaces to machines and equipment.
Proper ergonomic design is necessary to prevent repetitive strain injuries and other musculoskeletal disorders , which can develop over time and can lead to long-term disability. Human factors and ergonomics are concerned with the "fit" between the user, equipment, and environment or "fitting a job to a person". To assess the fit between a person and the used technology, human factors specialists or ergonomists consider the job activity being done and the demands on the user; the equipment used its size, shape, and how appropriate it is for the task , and the information used how it is presented, accessed, and changed.
Ergonomics draws on many disciplines in its study of humans and their environments, including anthropometry, biomechanics, mechanical engineering, industrial engineering , industrial design, information design , kinesiology , physiology , cognitive psychology , industrial and organizational psychology , and space psychology. The introduction of the term to the English lexicon is widely attributed to British psychologist Hywel Murrell , at the meeting at the UK's Admiralty , which led to the foundation of The Ergonomics Society.
He used it to encompass the studies in which he had been engaged during and after World War II. The expression human factors is a predominantly North American  term which has been adopted to emphasize the application of the same methods to non-work-related situations.
A "human factor" is a physical or cognitive property of an individual or social behavior specific to humans that may influence the functioning of technological systems. The terms "human factors" and "ergonomics" are essentially synonymous. Ergonomics comprise three main fields of research: physical, cognitive and organizational ergonomics. There are many specializations within these broad categories. Specializations in the field of physical ergonomics may include visual ergonomics. Specializations within the field of cognitive ergonomics may include usability, human—computer interaction , and user experience engineering.
Some specializations may cut across these domains: Environmental ergonomics is concerned with human interaction with the environment as characterized by climate, temperature, pressure, vibration, light. New terms are being generated all the time. For instance, "user trial engineer" may refer to a human factors professional who specializes in user trials. According to the International Ergonomics Association , within the discipline of ergonomics there exist domains of specialization.
Physical ergonomics is concerned with human anatomy, and some of the anthropometric, physiological and bio mechanical characteristics as they relate to physical activity. Pressure that is insignificant or imperceptible to those unaffected by these disorders may be very painful, or render a device unusable, for those who are.
Many ergonomically designed products are also used or recommended to treat or prevent such disorders, and to treat pressure-related chronic pain. One of the most prevalent types of work-related injuries is musculoskeletal disorder. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders WRMDs result in persistent pain, loss of functional capacity and work disability, but their initial diagnosis is difficult because they are mainly based on complaints of pain and other symptoms. These types of jobs are often those involving activities such as repetitive and forceful exertions; frequent, heavy, or overhead lifts; awkward work positions; or use of vibrating equipment.
Short and long-term solutions involve awareness training, positioning of the body, furniture and equipment and ergonomic exercises. Sit-stand stations and computer accessories that provide soft surfaces for resting the palm as well as split keyboards are recommended. Additionally, resources within the HR department can be allocated to provide assessments to employees to ensure the above criteria are met. Innovative workstations that are being tested include sit-stand desks, treadmill desks, pedal devices and cycle ergometers.
In multiple studies these new workstations resulted in decreased waist circumference and improved psychological well being. However a significant number of additional studies have seen no marked improvement in health outcomes.
Cognitive ergonomics is concerned with mental processes, such as perception, memory, reasoning, and motor response, as they affect interactions among humans and other elements of a system. Epidemiological studies show a correlation between the time one spends sedentary and their cognitive function such as lowered mood and depression.
Organizational ergonomics is concerned with the optimization of socio-technical systems, including their organizational structures, policies, and processes.
A good deal of evidence indicates that Greek civilization in the 5th century BC used ergonomic principles in the design of their tools, jobs, and workplaces.
One outstanding example of this can be found in the description Hippocrates gave of how a surgeon's workplace should be designed and how the tools he uses should be arranged.
In the late s and early s Ramazzini visited many worksites where he documented the movements of laborers and spoke to them about their ailments. Taylor found that he could, for example, triple the amount of coal that workers were shoveling by incrementally reducing the size and weight of coal shovels until the fastest shoveling rate was reached. They aimed to improve efficiency by eliminating unnecessary steps and actions. By applying this approach, the Gilbreths reduced the number of motions in bricklaying from 18 to 4.
However, this approach was rejected by Russian researchers who focused on the well-being of the worker. Bekhterev argued that "The ultimate ideal of the labour problem is not in it [Taylorism], but is in such organisation of the labour process that would yield a maximum of efficiency coupled with a minimum of health hazards, absence of fatigue and a guarantee of the sound health and all round personal development of the working people.
Dull monotonous work was a temporary necessity until a corresponding machine can be developed. He also went on to suggest a new discipline of "ergology" to study work as an integral part of the re-organisation of work.
The concept was taken up by Myasishchev's mentor, Bekhterev, in his final report on the conference, merely changing the name to "ergonology" .
The war saw the emergence of aeromedical research and the need for testing and measurement methods. Studies on driver behavior started gaining momentum during this period, as Henry Ford started providing millions of Americans with automobiles. Another major development during this period was the performance of aeromedical research. Many tests were conducted to determine which characteristic differentiated the successful pilots from the unsuccessful ones.
During the early s, Edwin Link developed the first flight simulator. The trend continued and more sophisticated simulators and test equipment were developed. Another significant development was in the civilian sector, where the effects of illumination on worker productivity were examined.
This led to the identification of the Hawthorne Effect , which suggested that motivational factors could significantly influence human performance.
It was no longer possible to adopt the Tayloristic principle of matching individuals to preexisting jobs. Now the design of equipment had to take into account human limitations and take advantage of human capabilities. The decision-making, attention, situational awareness and hand-eye coordination of the machine's operator became key in the success or failure of a task.
There was substantial research conducted to determine the human capabilities and limitations that had to be accomplished. A lot of this research took off where the aeromedical research between the wars had left off. An example of this is the study done by Fitts and Jones , who studied the most effective configuration of control knobs to be used in aircraft cockpits. Much of this research transcended into other equipment with the aim of making the controls and displays easier for the operators to use.
The entry of the terms "human factors" and "ergonomics" into the modern lexicon date from this period. It was observed that fully functional aircraft flown by the best-trained pilots, still crashed. In Alphonse Chapanis , a lieutenant in the U. Army, showed that this so-called " pilot error " could be greatly reduced when more logical and differentiable controls replaced confusing designs in airplane cockpits. After the war, the Army Air Force published 19 volumes summarizing what had been established from research during the war.
It was the climate for a breakthrough. The beginning of the Cold War led to a major expansion of Defense supported research laboratories. Also, many labs established during WWII started expanding. Most of the research following the war was military-sponsored. Large sums of money were granted to universities to conduct research.
The scope of the research also broadened from small equipments to entire workstations and systems. Concurrently, a lot of opportunities started opening up in the civilian industry. The focus shifted from research to participation through advice to engineers in the design of equipment. After , the period saw a maturation of the discipline. The field has expanded with the development of the computer and computer applications. The Space Age created new human factors issues such as weightlessness and extreme g-forces.
Tolerance of the harsh environment of space and its effects on the mind and body were widely studied. Likewise, the growing demand for and competition among consumer goods and electronics has resulted in more companies and industries including human factors in their product design. Using advanced technologies in human kinetics , body-mapping, movement patterns and heat zones, companies are able to manufacture purpose-specific garments, including full body suits, jerseys, shorts, shoes, and even underwear.
The Society's mission is to promote the discovery and exchange of knowledge concerning the characteristics of human beings that are applicable to the design of systems and devices of all kinds. According to it mission statement, ACE unites and advances the knowledge and skills of ergonomics and human factors practitioners to optimise human and organisational well-being. The International Ergonomics Association IEA is a federation of ergonomics and human factors societies from around the world.
The mission of the IEA is to elaborate and advance ergonomics science and practice, and to improve the quality of life by expanding its scope of application and contribution to society. As of September , the International Ergonomics Association has 46 federated societies and 2 affiliated societies. The goal of the network is to provide resources for human factors practitioners and healthcare organizations looking to successfully apply HF principles to improve patient care and provider performance.
The network also serves as collaborative platform for human factors practitioners, students, faculty, industry partners, and those curious about human factors in healthcare.
From the outset the IOM employed an ergonomics staff to apply ergonomics principles to the design of mining machinery and environments.
To this day, the IOM continues ergonomics activities, especially in the fields of musculoskeletal disorders ; heat stress and the ergonomics of personal protective equipment PPE. Like many in occupational ergonomics, the demands and requirements of an ageing UK workforce are a growing concern and interest to IOM ergonomists. The International Society of Automotive Engineers SAE is a professional organization for mobility engineering professionals in the aerospace, automotive, and commercial vehicle industries.
The Society is a standards development organization for the engineering of powered vehicles of all kinds, including cars, trucks, boats, aircraft, and others.
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This paper presents a reflection on the future of ergonomics and a clear position for the use of prospective in this discipline. We propose to structure ergonomic activities around corrective, preventive design and prospective ergonomics, where the latter looks forward in time to defining human needs and activities so as to create human-centered artifacts that are useful and provide a positive user experience. The place of prospective ergonomics is upstream of projects, before a problem or request is raised by a client, and before projects exist. We describe several characteristics of prospective ergonomics and compare them with those of corrective and preventive ergonomics.
Data correspond to usage on the plateform after The current usage metrics is available hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days. Open Access. A comparison of the hazards, the risks, and the types of control in three selected agricultural industries.
Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. To get the free app, enter your mobile phone number. The previous edition of the International Encyclopedia of Ergonomics and Human Factors made history as the first unified source of reliable information drawn from many realms of science and technology and created specifically with ergonomics professionals in mind. Not content to rest on his laurels, human factors and ergonomics expert Professor Waldemar Karwowski has overhauled his standard-setting resource, incorporating coverage of tried and true methods, fundamental principles, and major paradigm shifts in philosophy, thought, and design.
Australia: Ergonomics Society of Australia 8. Biosketch: Corwin Bennett
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