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Preliminaries The Statement of the Problem Purpose of the Study Synthesis of Related Literature Significance of the Study The Hypothesis Preliminaries Disadvantages Rate of return Inflexibility Subject motivation Verbal behavior only Loss of control Research Design and Statistical Analysis in Christian Ministry Writing Multiple Choice Items Pose a singular problem Avoid repeating phrases in responses Minimize negative stems Make responses similar Make responses mutually exclusive Make responses equally plausible Randomly order responses Avoid sources of irrelevant difficulty Eliminate extraneous material Avoid None of the Above Advantages Disadvantages Disadvantages Writing Matching Items Limit number of pairs Make option list longer Only one correct match Maintain a central theme Keep responses simple Make the response option list systematic Specific instructions.
Open-Ended Items Writing essay items Advantages Disadvantages Use short-answer essays Write clear questions Develop a grading key Two Sample t-Tests Descriptive or Experimental? As you sit in classes or talk with friends, have you noticed that people differ in the way they know things? Look at six students who are discussing the issue of "modern translations" of the Bible. Everybody in our church back home uses it. I like the Amplified Version because it is so clear in its language. It just feels right.
After evaluating each one, I've come back again and again to the New International Version. It's the best translation for me. Therefore, I use different translations depending on my study goals. Each of these students reflect a different basis for knowing which translation to use.
Which student most closely reflects your view? How did you come to know what you know? As we begin our study of research design and statistical analysis, we need to understand the characteristics of scientific knowing, and how this kind of knowing differs from other ways we learn about our world.
Then we'll analyze the scientific method, which is based on inductive reasoning. Common Sense Common sense refers to knowledge we take for granted. We learn by absorbing the customs and traditions that surround usfrom family, church, community and nation. We assume this knowledge is correct because it is familiar to us. We seldom question, or even think to question, its correctness because it just is. Unless we move to another region, or go to school and study the views of others, we have nothing to challenge our way of thinking.
It's just common sense! But common sense told us that the earth is flat until Columbus discovered otherwise. Common sense told us that dunce caps and caning are effective student motivators until educational research discovered the negative aspects of punishment. Common sense may well be wrong. Authority Authoritative knowledge is an uncritical acceptance of anothers knowledge. When we are sick, we go to the doctor to find out what to do.
When we need legal help, we go to a lawyer and follow his advice. Since we can not verify the knowledge on our own, we must simply choose to accept or reject the expert's advice. It would be foolish to argue with a doctor's diagnosis, or a lawyer's perception of a case.
This is the meaning of "uncritical acceptance" in the definition above. The only recourse to accepting the expert's knowledge is to get a second opinionfrom another expert. As Christians, we believe that Gods Word is the authority for our life and work. The Written Word confirms our experiences with the Living Word. Scripture is a valid source of authoritative knowledge.
However, we spend a lot of time discussing Scriptural interpretations. Our discussions often deteriorate into conflicts about my pastors interpretations. We use our own pastors interpretation as authoritative because of the influence he has had in our own life. We can substitute any authoritative person here, such as a father or mother, Sunday School teacher, or respected colleague. But is the authority is correct? Authoritative knowing does not question the source of knowledge.
Yet differing authorities cannot be correct simultaneously. How do we test the validity of an authoritys testimony? The properly trained mind intuits the truth naturally. The field of geometry provides a good example of this kind of knowing. Lets say I know that Line segment A is the same length as line segment B. I also know that Line segment B is the same length as line segment C.
From these two truths, I immediately recognize that Line segments A and C are equal. I do not need to draw the three lines and measure them. My mind immediately grasps the truth of the statement.
Revelation is knowledge that God reveals about Himself. I do not need test this knowledge, or subject it to experimentation. When Christ reveals Himself to us, we know Him in a personal way.
We did not achieve this knowledge by our own efforts, but merely received the revelation of the Lord. We cannot prove this knowledge to others, but it is bedrock truth to those who've experienced it.
Problems arise, however,. Well, it's obvious that regular attendance in Sunday School helps people grow in the Lord.
Is it? We work hard at promoting Sunday School attendance. Does it actually change the lives of the attenders? Is it enough for people to think it does, whether or not real change takes place? Answers to these questions come from clear-headed analysis, not from intuition. Experience Experiential knowledge comes from trial and error learning. We develop it when we try something and analyze the consequences. You've probably heard comments like these: We've already tried that and it failed. Or another: Weve found that holding Vacation Bible School during the third week of August, in the evening, is best for our church.
The first is negative. The speaker is saying there's no need to try that ministry or program again, because it was already tried. The second is positive. This church has tried several approaches to offering Vacation Bible School and found the best time for them. Their truth may not apply to any other church in the association, but it is true for them. Theyve tried it and it worked. Much of the promotion of new church programs comes out of this framework.
We say, This program is being used in other churches with great success which means our church can have the same experience if we use this program. How do we evaluate program effectiveness?
What is success? How do we measure it? Deductive Reasoning Deductive reasoning moves thinking from stated general principles to specific elements. We develop general over-arching statements of intent and purpose. Then we deduce from these principles specific actions we should take. Determine world view first. Then make daily decisions which logically derive from this perspective. When we take the Great Commission as our primary mandate, we have framed a world view for ministry.
That is, Whatever we do, we will connect it to reaching out and baptizing missions and evangelism , teaching discipleship and ministry. Now, how do we do it? We deduce specific programs, plans, and procedures for carrying out the mandate.
We eliminate programs that conflict with this mandate. How do we arrive at this world view? Are our over-arching principles correct? Have we interpreted them correctly? Correct action rises or falls on the basis of two things. First, correct action depends on the correctness of our world view. Secondly, correct action depends on our ability to translate that view into practical ministry steps.
Inductive Reasoning Inductive reasoning moves thinking from specific elements to general principles. Inductive Bible study analyzes several passages and then synthesizes key concepts into the central truth. Science is inductive in its study of a number of specifics and its use of these results to formulate a theory.
Preliminaries The Statement of the Problem Purpose of the Study Synthesis of Related Literature Significance of the Study The Hypothesis Preliminaries Disadvantages Rate of return Inflexibility Subject motivation Verbal behavior only Loss of control Research Design and Statistical Analysis in Christian Ministry Writing Multiple Choice Items Pose a singular problem Avoid repeating phrases in responses Minimize negative stems Make responses similar Make responses mutually exclusive Make responses equally plausible Randomly order responses Avoid sources of irrelevant difficulty Eliminate extraneous material Avoid None of the Above Advantages Disadvantages Disadvantages Writing Matching Items Limit number of pairs Make option list longer Only one correct match Maintain a central theme Keep responses simple Make the response option list systematic Specific instructions. Open-Ended Items Writing essay items Advantages Disadvantages Use short-answer essays Write clear questions Develop a grading key Two Sample t-Tests Descriptive or Experimental?
Survey research in practical theology and congregational studies. Hermans I ; W. Schoeman II. Empirical research is understood as the search for knowledge-based empirical data. The best-known data-based research strategy is survey research. In practical theology, survey research is probably one of the most used research strategies.
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William R. Rick YountCover page, page layout, and all illustrations designed by the author. May not be produced and distributed for profit without written permission of the author. PrefaceFourth EditionFor nineteen years, material in this book has introduced students in the School of Educational Ministries, Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, to the fundamentals of scientific research and statistical analysis. The book was written at the request of students who, at the time, used two published texts -- Borg and Galls massive Educational Research 4th ed.
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An advanced course in which students examine philosophical issues relevant to educational studies from a Christian worldview perspective. Emphasis is placed on enhancing conceptual thinking about educational issues utilizing a philosophically-oriented framework that facilitates thorough analysis by the preparation of several in-depth book reviews suitable for publication. Grade Mode: A. Introductory study of educational research methods, research design and evaluation, and quantitative descriptive research and statistical analysis. Students learn skills for locating and evaluating empirical research and developing a literature review as part of a research proposal and receive an introduction to SPSS for descriptive statistical data analysis. An introductory course on qualitative research design, data collection, and analysis methods, emphasizing rigorous quality control with a focus on educational settings, both formal and non-formal.
William R. Rick YountCover page, page layout, and all illustrations designed by the author. May not be produced and distributed for profit without written permission of the author.
Conversation on significance in research. Probability — the study of chance events governed by rules or laws — see workshop 6 inferential statistics is based on probability because it. Statistical methods and analyses are used to communicate research findings and give credibility to research methodology and conclusions. Vandersliceus worker- owned restaurant case study qualitative interviews, conversations. The success of comparative scientific studies, according to dr.
Ahrens, A. Published by Klaipeda University, Lithuania. Mohammad S. Printed in Portugal. Bartlett, J.
Разве нельзя дождаться звонка Дэвида о той копии, что была у Танкадо. Стратмор покачал головой. - Чем быстрее мы внесем изменение в программу, тем легче будет все остальное. У нас нет гарантий, что Дэвид найдет вторую копию. Если по какой-то случайности кольцо попадет не в те руки, я бы предпочел, чтобы мы уже внесли нужные изменения в алгоритм. Тогда, кто бы ни стал обладателем ключа, он скачает себе нашу версию алгоритма. - Стратмор помахал оружием и встал.
Похоже, никого. Пожав плечами, он подошел к раковине. Раковина была очень грязной, но вода оказалась холодной, и это было приятно.
Я видел это своими глазами. Его слова не сразу дошли до ее сознания. Стратмор убил Чатрукьяна. Хейл, видимо, не догадывается, что она видела его внизу.
Фонтейн ничего не ответил, погруженный в глубокое раздумье. Слова Сьюзан Флетчер о том, что ключ находится в Испании, показались ему обнадеживающими. Он бросил быстрый взгляд на Сьюзан, которая по-прежнему сидела на стуле, обхватив голову руками и целиком уйдя в .
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