File Name: katharina reiss text types translation types and translation assessment .zip
This study investigates whether students develop the concept of text types in translation by using machine translation MT errors analysis and post-MT editing.
The translation assessment was based on intralinguistic and extralinguistic criteria of translation proposed by Reiss , propounding the categorization of text types and the link between these varieties and translation methods. From her, the primary factor that affects the selection of translation methods is text type. She also lists some specific methods for translators to deal with different text types.
Unfortunately, the teaching of translation in universities has not adopted techniques that can response this situation. The technique is proposed by considering two influential concepts in translation theory, i. Text linguistics is a branch of linguistics that deals with texts as communication systems. Text linguistics takes into account the form of a text and its setting, i. In relation to translation, it can be said that translation is not only the business of analyzing the source text sentence by sentence.
Instead, the author and the intended audience and the purpose of communication should also be considered. Skopos theory is closely related to text-types and also emphasizes the importance of translation purposes. With these ideas as the basis, this article gives example how to apply text linguistics and skopos theory in classroom context to teach functional text translation. The translation teaching materials are selected based on the text type and difficulty levels, students are trained to do text-analysis and be made aware of the purpose of the source text is not always the same with the purpose of the target text.
Prior to giving a translation practice, therefore, the teacher writes the clearest translation brief possible. Keywords : text linguistics, skopos theory, classroom teaching, translation teaching. Translation has been done since long time ago. The activities have created a new profession, i. According to Hariyanto , there are two markets for translation business, i. Publishers publish translated books for several reasons. At least there are three motivations: academic, empowerment and business motivations.
With academic motivation, the publishers translate books to meet academic demand. For example, Resist Book translates and publishes a book on Chomsky to meet the need for literature on Chomsky in Bahasa Indonesia. They also translate and publish books to empower the readers, for example, in the fields of democratization, human rights, entrepreneurship and other fields. Finally, as the most dominating motivation, publishers translate and publish books for economic reasons.
Publication of translated books is more profitable rather than publishing local works. Hence, publishers pay less when they publish translated books than when they publish books written by local writers.
In terms of marketing, some translated books are already backed up with international success. This is illustrated by the high demand of the translation version of Harry Potter, the best seller novel ever.
The translation business in the international market is boosted by the globalization needs. With globalization, many manufacturers want to sell their products in other countries.
They need to talk to the people of other countries in their local languages. The text types vary now. They do not only cover novels and textbooks but also websites and software interfaces. The great challenges of translation business illustrated above, however, are not paralleled with the fact found in educational institutions producing potential translators.
Chriss, as cited by Nababan , states that up to these days the basic approach in translation teaching seems to remain unchanged from the time of the School of Scribes in Ancient Egypt. The teacher gives out a source text to the students and then without any briefing and notes asks them to translate the text in the class or at home. Upon completing, the target text is then discussed in great depth and detail by the whole class to find out what is lack in the translation.
As a consequence, such practice can hardly produce potential translator who can take the challenge of the translation business in which a target text should firstly meet the purpose of translating the source text.
This paper, therefore, aims to propose a translation teaching technique which hopefully can train the students to produce target texts demanded in the translation business. Thus, in its discussion this paper explicates some concepts of Text Linguistics , Skopos Theory andits Translation-oriented text analysis and then describes the translation teaching technique proposed.
It is mentioned in the background of this paper that texts to be translated in translation business nowadays are various. For Indonesian publishers, translators translate textbooks, popular books, novels, children books, books on Information Technology IT and many others; as for many international and a few national translation agents, Indonesian translators work on texts like technical manuals, websites, software interfaces, advertisements, legal documents, annual reports , and many others.
In relation to text-type, Snell-Hornby classifies translation into three general categories: literary translation, general translation and special language translation. Literary translation is the translation of literary works and Bible, and general translation is translation of newspaper, information text and advertising.
For all of these translation types, text linguistics is necessary. This can be seen in the following chart. What is text linguistics anyway? In general, it can be said that text linguistics is a branch of linguistics that deals with texts as communication systems. As a matter of fact, her approach considers the text rather than the word or the sentence as the translation unit and hence the level at which equivalence is to be sought.
She classifies texts based on discourse function into: a informative, b expressive, and c operative. A text is classified as an informative text if the content is the main focus. This kind of texts plainly communicates facts, information, knowledge, opinions, etc. The logical or referential dimension of language is the main aspect involved. Texts are called expressive if the focus is on creative composition and aesthetics aspects.
Both the author and the message are what are foregrounded. The examples are imaginative creative literature texts. Next, an operative text is a text whose focus is the appellative aspect. Here the text appeals to the readers to act in a certain way by persuading, dissuading, requesting, and cajoling them. Usually the form of language is dialogic. The target text of an informative text should be in plain prose with explication where required, because the aim is to transmit the referential content of the text.
The translation of an operative text has to employ the adaptive method, where the translator tries to create the same effect on the readers, as the ST. Thus while the translation of any content-oriented text has to aim at semantic equivalence, and a popular science piece will have to preserve the ST style, there is greater need to retain a metaphor in an expressive text than in an informative target text.
She thinks that one could measure the adequacy of a target text TT by intra-linguistic criteria—like semantic, grammatical and stylistic features—and extra-linguistic criteria—like situation, subject field, time, place, receiver, sender and implications like humor, irony, emotion etc. Chart 3 illustrates the typology. The above typology is a useful typology of texts but it is clear that texts are often not easily categorized.
One single text can have several characteristics. A biography could have informative as well as appellative content. A personal letter could well be informative, expressive and appellative as can be an advertisement. The important thing here is that her approach is built on earlier ideas of rhetoric and language analysis. It is clear from the above discussion on text linguistics that the approach to translation can be closely related to the type of text to translate.
The translation process of a text is guided by its function i. Each text is produced for a given purpose and should serve this purpose. Skopos theory is not only closely related to text-types, but also to the importance of translation purposes which is always oriented to the target readers, especially their response.
Skopos theory focuses on the purpose of the translation, which determines the methods and strategies of translating, which are employed to produce functionally adequate result Munday, Skopos theory which emerged in Germany Hatim, 73 is within functionalism.
Skopos idea relies on key concepts in pragmatics that is intention and action. There are two important skopos rules:. Translator decision is governed by textual and contextual factors. One of the contextual factors is audience design which accounts for the way a target text is intended to be received. This will affect the translation strategies selected by the translator. Target text must be produced with the given purpose in mind and that translation will function well when shaped by a particular purpose.
Three major kinds of purpose are already recognized: communicative, strategic, and general purposes Hatim, Such purposes cannot be equally important. The success or failure of a translation is ultimately decided whether it can be interpreted successfully by the targeted recipient in a manner that is consistent whit what is expected of it Hatim, In skopos theory, the success or failure of translation is often mentioned as success or protest. Success means definitely success in transferring the text function and protest means failure.
A successful translation elicits no protest from the target recipient. Thus, intention is related with function. Intention is judged by the writer of source text and the function is judged by the receiver Hatim, Success of a translation is measured in terms of harmony of content and intention. Content means content of message. Intention means intention of producer or translator Hatim, There are two kinds of textual coherence: a intra-textual coherence and b intertextual coherence.
Here intra-textual coherence is more important. Hatim, As a matter of fact, text only contains information offer. Thus, a text may mean many different things to many receivers Hatim, Therefore, the target readers must be taken into account. Who, then, determines the skopos or purpose of translation? The skopos is determined by the initiator or commissioner of the translation, the translation brief and the type of translation. In a translation project, there are at least three roles: initiator, commissioner, and translator.
The following is an example of a case in translation field. One of the lectures in Malang State University has read a book on linguistics.
While we are building a new and improved webshop, please click below to purchase this content via our partner CCC and their Rightfind service. You will need to register with a RightFind account to finalise the purchase. Objective Intercultural Pragmatics is a fully peer-reviewed forum for theoretical and applied pragmatics research. The goal of the journal is to promote the development and understanding of pragmatic theory and intercultural competence by publishing research that focuses on general theoretical issues, more than one language and culture, or varieties of one language. It supports interaction and scholarly debate between researchers representing different subfields of pragmatics including the linguistic, cognitive, social, and interlanguage paradigms. The intercultural perspective is relevant not only to each line of research within pragmatics but also extends to several other disciplines such as anthropology, theoretical and applied linguistics, psychology, communication, sociolinguistics, second language acquisition, and bi- and multilingualism. Intercultural Pragmatics makes a special effort to cross disciplinary boundaries.
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Unfortunately, the teaching of translation in universities has not adopted techniques that can response this situation. The technique is proposed by considering two influential concepts in translation theory, i. Text linguistics is a branch of linguistics that deals with texts as communication systems.
Functional theories from Germany in the ss mark a move away from static linguistic typologies. Reiss stresses equivalence at text level, linking language functions to text types and translation strategy. Holz-Manttari's theory of translational action: a communicative process involving a series of players.
This book is a time machine taking me back to the early seventies of the past century. Recently graduated as a translator at the Institute for Translation and Interpreting of Heidelberg University, I had just started my career as a translation teacher at the same institution. I remembered the Spanish language and translation classes with Katharina Reiss, particularly one seminar on translation criticism where I was first confronted with a scholarly approach to translation. Up to then, learning to translate had been little more than trial and error in practical classes. The bibliography of the time-machine book reads like an account of the state of the art in
Katharina Reiss 17 April — 16 April was a German linguist and translation scholar. Her works are important in the field of translation studies. She is widely seen as a co-founder of the Skopos theory. Katharina Reiss was born in Rheinhausen , a small town on the left bank of the Rhine , and across the river from Duisburg into which, for administrative purposes, it has subsequently been subsumed.
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Text types, translation types and translation assessment. Katharina Reiss special stylistic forms of expression in syntax and lexis, word play, metaphor and so on.Isaac M. 12.05.2021 at 15:09
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