File Name: female reproductive hormones and their functions .zip
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The onset of puberty is controlled by two major hormones: FSH initiates spermatogenesis and LH signals the release of testosterone. Puberty is a period of several years in which rapid physical growth and psychological changes occur, culminating in sexual maturity. The average onset of puberty is age 11 or 12 for boys. These changes are largely influenced by hormonal activity. Hormones play an organizational role, priming the body to behave in a certain way once puberty begins, and an activational role, referring to changes in hormones during adolescence that trigger behavioral and physical changes.
Female sex hormones, or sex steroids, play vital roles in sexual development, reproduction, and general health. Sex hormone levels change over time, but some of the most significant changes happen during puberty, pregnancy, and menopause. In this article, we discuss the different types of female sex hormones, their roles in the body, and how they affect arousal. Hormones are chemical messengers that the endocrine glands produce and release into the bloodstream. Hormones help regulate many bodily processes, such as appetite, sleep, and growth.
In addition to their role in producing ova, the ovaries also have the distinction of being an endocrine gland because they secrete hormones—primarily estrogen and progesterone—that are vital to normal reproductive development and fertility. Estrogen replacement therapy during menopause protects bone mass and helps protect against the risk of osteoporotic fractures. Treatment for ovarian cysts depends on the size and type of cyst. He or she will determine what treatment is best for you. Endocrine Community. Email Print Discuss.
The genetic, endocrine, and metabolic mechanisms underlying female reproduction are numerous and sophisticated, displaying complex functional evolution throughout a woman's lifetime. This vital course may be systematized in three subsequent stages: prenatal development of ovaries and germ cells up until in utero arrest of follicular growth and the ensuing interim suspension of gonadal function; onset of reproductive maturity through puberty, with reinitiation of both gonadal and adrenal activity; and adult functionality of the ovarian cycle which permits ovulation, a key event in female fertility, and dictates concurrent modifications in the endometrium and other ovarian hormone-sensitive tissues. Indeed, the ultimate goal of this physiologic progression is to achieve ovulation and offer an adequate environment for the installation of gestation, the consummation of female fertility. Strict regulation of these processes is important, as disruptions at any point in this evolution may equate a myriad of endocrine-metabolic disturbances for women and adverse consequences on offspring both during pregnancy and postpartum. This review offers a summary of pivotal aspects concerning the physiologic course of female reproductive function. Historically, the phenomenon of human reproduction has awakened great interest. One of its first scientific descriptions, authored by Hippocrates, dates back to the fifth century BC, suggesting generation of new beings to stem from the union of the male's ejaculate and the female's menstrual bleeding.
The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum. When released, this travels down the fallopian tube into the uterus , where it may become fertilized by a sperm. The ovaries also secrete hormones that play a role in the menstrual cycle and fertility. The ovary progresses through many stages beginning in the prenatal period through menopause. It is also an endocrine gland because of the various hormones that it secretes. The ovaries are considered the female gonads.
The underlined headings correspond to the 2 Female Reproductive System videos. 1. The Common Axis. There are many similarities sex hormones like testosterone and estrogen regulate GnRH, LH, and FSH secretion. The Axis in.
If your institution subscribes to this resource, and you don't have a MyAccess Profile, please contact your library's reference desk for information on how to gain access to this resource from off-campus. Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. Describe oogenesis, its relationship to follicular maturation, and the roles of pituitary and ovarian factors in their regulation. Describe gonadotropin control of ovarian function.
The information in this section is an application of concepts we learned when exploring the endocrine system in a previous chapter. The human male and female reproductive cycles are regulated by the interaction of hormones from the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary with hormones from reproductive tissues and organs. Since the material in this section is practical and relevant, a brief review is helpful. A learning objective merges required content with one or more of the seven science practices. At the onset of puberty, the hypothalamus causes the release of follicle stimulating hormone FSH and luteinizing hormone LH into the male system for the first time.
In the previous study session you learned about the anatomy and physiology of the female reproductive system. The hormones oestrogen and progesterone were briefly introduced. In this study session you will learn much more about the role of these and other important hormones involved in the regulation of the human menstrual cycle, the monthly production of mature ova eggs by females of reproductive age, and the preparation of the uterus as a welcoming environment for the start of a pregnancy. SAQs 4. As you will probably remember from your previous high school biology course, the various functions of the body are regulated by the nervous system and the hormonal system.
А на этот рейс были свободные места. - Сколько угодно, - улыбнулась женщина. - Самолет улетел почти пустой. Но завтра в восемь утра тоже есть… - Мне нужно узнать, улетела ли этим рейсом моя подруга. Она собиралась купить билет прямо перед вылетом.
Стратмор кивнул: - Танкадо хотел от него избавиться. Он подумал, что это мы его убили. Он почувствовал, что умирает, и вполне логично предположил, что это наших рук. Тут все совпадает. Он решил, что мы добрались до него и, вероятно, отравили - ядом, вызывающим остановку сердца. Он понимал, что мы могли решиться на это только в одном случае - если нашли Северную Дакоту. По спине Сьюзан пробежал холодок.
- Я любил тебя. У нее свело желудок. - Останься со. В ее сознании замелькали страшные образы: светло-зеленые глаза Дэвида, закрывающиеся в последний раз; тело Грега Хейла, его сочащаяся кровь на ковре; обгорелый труп Фила Чатрукьяна на лопастях генератора. - Боль пройдет, - внушал Стратмор. - Ты полюбишь .
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