File Name: biomonitors and biomarkers as indicators of environmental change .zip
Ghebreyesus 1 , Z. Tadese 1 , D. Jima 1 , E. Bekele 2 , A. Mihretie 3 , Y. Yihdego 4 , T. Dinku 5 , S. Connor 5 and D. Rogers 6. Climate is a key variable in managing the overall burden of disease, particularly in developing countries where the ability to control climate-sensitive diseases constrains the prospects of achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.
To mitigate their adverse effects, the health sector needs to understand and quantify the specific effects of climate variability and change both on the overall disease burden and on opportunities and effectiveness in the public health response. This applies equally to future adaptation strategies and to understanding fully the impact of the climate on the existing disease burden and current interventions.
For example, an accurate assessment of the impact of a bed net programme for malaria control depends on knowing the climate trend during the assessment period. In the absence of any intervention, increasingly wet years may well increase the mosquito population, resulting in a higher incidence of malaria, while conversely, periods of drought may well decrease the mosquito population and reduce the incidence of malaria.
It is also possible that the trend could reverse in certain locations; dry spells favouring transmission when normally running streams leave intermittent pockets of water during drought periods which then become suitable for mosquito breeding.
Thus, it is important to understand the environmental context to develop an accurate picture of the efficacy of any intervention strategy. The health sector can also use climate information effectively in epidemic early warning systems.
Seasonal forecasts of temperature and rainfall, which are useful indicators of the likely occurrence of malaria outbreaks, can be used to implement a programme of heightened epidemic surveillance, while real-time temperature and rainfall estimates can be used to initiate selective interventions and to support the early detection of disease outbreaks.
Climate change is high on the agenda of public health services worldwide. The recent World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization WHO May reinforced the need for countries to develop health measures and integrate them into plans for adaptation to climate change; to strengthen the capacity of health systems for monitoring and minimizing the public health impacts of climate change through adequate preventive measures, preparedness, timely response and effective management of natural disasters; and for the health sector to effectively engage with all of the relevant sectors, agencies and key partners at national and global levels to reduce current and projected health risks from climate change.
One approach is to build on existing decision-support and other tools, such as surveillance and monitoring, to include the capacity to assess vulnerability to, and the health impacts of, climate change, and to develop new responses, as appropriate. Since the health sector is not usually engaged in climate and environmental monitoring, acquiring and using this type of information successfully depends on developing partnerships between health practitioners and the gatherers and providers of climate and environmental information.
In most countries, the collection and provision of climate data and information are the responsibility of the National Meteorological Services. National climate service providers need to be developed to meet user needs for climate information in decision-making.
Until recently, climate records were collected primarily for the purpose of creating a general climatology, rather than meeting the particular needs of a specialized user group, such as the health sector. In Africa, climate observing networks are generally sparse and inadequate for the task. It is recognized that a significant investment is needed in new observations and information systems to provide useful sector-specific climate data and information IRI, Achieving this depends on a high level of collaboration between environmental and health experts.
Institutionally, this will only occur if there is an effective working relationship established between the providers of climate data and information and the Ministry of Health. In the interest of helping other countries find the practical means to increase access to relevant climate information, this experience is documented here and the key ingredients needed for successful collaboration are synthesized and described.
The greatest burden of malaria in Africa is in endemic areas, where the parasite is continuously present in the community. Where control measures are inadequate, the distribution of the disease is closely linked to seasonal patterns of climate and the local environment. Those most at risk from endemic malaria are the very young who have not acquired immunity and pregnant women whose immunity is reduced during pregnancy Connor et al.
In contrast, epidemic malaria occurs where the exposure of the population is infrequent and, therefore, they have little acquired immunity. Because immunity is low, all age groups are vulnerable and fatality rates can be high Kiwzewski and Teklehaimanot, It is estimated that more than million Africans live in epidemic prone areas; consequently, prevention of epidemics is also a major public health issue Worrall et al.
Epidemics occur when the conditions supporting the balance between the human, parasite and vector populations are disturbed in favour of the latter. This change in equilibrium is often brought about by climate anomalies which temporarily allow sufficient mosquito survival and parasite development. Epidemic malaria risk is high in Ethiopia and other densely populated countries in the East African highlands. A first step towards dealing with an epidemic is to ensure that the local health institutions have the capacity to respond adequately and are not overwhelmed by the number of cases.
This can be achieved only if there is sufficient lead time for advanced preparation and prevention, which require early warning of where and when epidemics are likely to occur. Recognizing this, the MoH, with support from the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria GFATM , is in the process of building a climate-informed epidemic early warning and response system that comprises seasonal and shorter time-scale forecasts, real-time weather information and early detection of cases Connor et al.
The stations are maintained by the NMA, which is responsible for making the data available to the general health care system of Ethiopia Connor et al. Rainfall, temperature and relative humidity data are combined to produce maps of the climatological conditions for malaria.
The expectation is that this information will be helpful in planning for the purchase of drugs; identifying where and when to implement more epidemiological surveillance; focusing vector control more accurately in space and time; raising community awareness of epidemic risk; and warning relevant players of any potential emergency as necessary Connor et al.
Although in a relatively early stage of development, the cooperation between the Ministry of Health and National Meteorological Agency can provide a useful guide to others looking to deal more effectively with climate and health issues.
What is needed for an effective working relationship between the health sector and Meteorological Services? In order to provide a focus on climate and health issues, Ethiopia has created a Climate-Health Working Group, which brings together most of the actors.
The structure and purpose of the Working Group are described here in detail as a guide to other countries wishing to establish similar mechanisms for the use of climate data and information to improve health outcomes. The vision of the Working Group is to engender a self-reliant, healthy and productive population through the proper use of climate information to improve health outcomes from climate-sensitive diseases.
Its goal is to create a climate-informed health sector and beneficiary communities that routinely request and use appropriate climate information to improve the effectiveness of health interventions. The objectives of the Working Group are to create awareness on the impact of weather and climate on health; to develop effective and functional means for the health sectors and beneficiary communities to routinely use appropriate climate information; to estimate populations at risk from climate-sensitive diseases where and when and including early warning systems.
Concluding remarks and recommendations. The health risks posed by current climate variability and the growing threat of climate change require the health sector to take the lead, to bring on board relevant sectors and institutions to ensure that concerted effort is made to utilize available climate data and information to manage climate risk more effectively.
The health sector is best placed to lead any effort to reduce the climate-sensitive disease burden, but it cannot do this without the active involvement and collaboration of key partners. Developing climate networks and deriving climate information is ideally within the purview of National Meteorological Services with which Ministries of Health can develop effective partnerships.
The Ethiopian experience has identified some of the key ingredients needed to sustain this working relationship and it may serve as a model for other countries dealing with the health risks caused by climate and climate change.
In particular, a partnership between the Ministry of Health and National Meteorological Service will help to:. Build greater confidence for increased national and international investment in sustainable public health gains. It is recommended that health sector and meteorological services set up a working group or task force at the national level with a structure, mission and objectives similar to the one described here with tasks tailored to specific climate-sensitive health problems.
This will help provide a focal point for climate and health issues in the country and spearhead collaborative work beyond national borders to engage, when appropriate, the international community more effectively. Connor, S. Dinku, T. Wolde-Georgis, E. Bekele and D. Jima, A collaborative epidemic early warning and response initiative in Ethiopia. Grover-Kopec E. Blumenthal, P. Ceccato, T. Dinku, J. Omumbo and S. Connor, Web-based climate information resources for malaria control in Africa.
Malaria Journal, 5 Kiszewski, A. Teklehaimanot, A review of the clinical and epidemiological burdens of epidemic malaria. Rogers, D. Boulahya, M. Thompson, S. Connor, T. Dinku, K. Johm, H. Shalaby, B. Ahmadu and A. Niang, National climate and environmental service for development.
WHO, Malaria epidemics: forecasting, prevention, early detection and control—from policy to practice. Worrall, E. Rietveld, and C. Delacollette, The burden of malaria epidemics and cost-effectiveness of interventions in epidemic situations in Africa.
Skip to main content. Rogers 6 Introduction Climate is a key variable in managing the overall burden of disease, particularly in developing countries where the ability to control climate-sensitive diseases constrains the prospects of achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.
Bednets treated with insecticide have proved to be very effective against malaria. Recently, 20 million treated bednets have been distributed in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian experience Epidemic malaria risk is high in Ethiopia and other densely populated countries in the East African highlands. Young children are especially vulnerable to malaria as they have not yet acquired immunity from the disease. It is axiomatic that there is a good public health intervention strategy to cope with climate-sensitive diseases.
This strategy must consider the role of climate, as well as other factors affecting disease incidence and preventative health care. Lack of understanding of the relationship between climate and disease often results in health services discounting its importance. In Ethiopia, Ministry of Health personnel understand the importance of the environment in developing and implementing effective health care strategies for climate-sensitive diseases.
The solution to the public health problem must be demand-driven, meaning that the health sector must take a leading role in defining the requirements for environmental information.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Data from biomonitoring studies are becoming widely available and are increasingly used to understand the presence of chemicals in the human body and their effects on human health. At the same time, scientists, public-health officials, and the public have questions about the quality and scope of the available data, what the data tell us about potential risks to human health, and how future research can address these questions. Responding to a congressional request, the National Research Council established the Committee on Human Biomonitoring for Environmental Toxicants to review current practices in and recommend ways to improve the interpretation and uses of human biomonitoring for environmental toxicants. This report defines biomonitoring as one method for assessing human exposure to chemicals by measuring the chemicals 1 or their metabolites 2 in human specimens, such as blood or urine CDC
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The sedentarism and wide global distribution of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis have made it a useful bioindicator to assess changes in the health status of the marine ecosystem in response to pollution and other environmental stresses. Effective biomonitoring of an ecosystem requires, however, that multiple biomarkers be used to obtain an accurate measure of the cumulative effects of different sources of environmental stress. Here, we provide a first integrated review of the biological, economical, and geographical characteristics of another species of mussels, the ribbed mussel Aulacomya ater.
Metrics details. A prerequisite for long-term survival of populations under multi-stress conditions is their capacity to set up efficient adaptive strategies. However, changes in the activity of molecular biomarkers have been for decades considered as early signals of the deterioration of the fish health and evidence of stress-related adverse biological effects. The aim of this study was to show that such changes actually represent adaptive response of fish to chemical stress.
Edited by M. Boston:WIT Press, Biological Monitoring is a newly published book whose chief aim is to provide an overview on the current knowledge of biological monitoring by evaluating the quality of ecosystems and human health. The book, edited and mostly written by Marcelo Enrique Conti, is composed of seven relatively dense chapters that deal mostly with monitoring ecosystem changes that result from environmental insults.
Ghebreyesus 1 , Z. Tadese 1 , D. Jima 1 , E. Bekele 2 , A. Mihretie 3 , Y. Yihdego 4 , T.
Pampanin a,b ,. Box , N, Stavanger, Norway. The purpose is to enable the use of biological responses biomarkers as Risk Indicators in procedures for Environmental Risk Assessment. The aim of the present paper is to discuss experiences gained from applying the Biomarker Bridges approach to existing data from the monitoring of an offshore oil field. The data are from the biomonitoring case study of an oil field on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The field had no discharge of produced water at the time of the survey and sediment contaminated with drill cuttings was expected to be the main source of contamination.
DOI: Ocean sustainability thus constitutes a major issue for human health, as well as economic and ecological perspectives. Indicators of oceanic contamination have been selected in order to identify, but also further prevent impact of human activities on marine ecosystems. Go to Mini Review Abstract Introduction Discussion Conclusion Acknowledgement References Introduction Coastal Areas support increasing population worldwide, for whom marine ecosystems constitute either directly or indirectly, principal economic resources. For instance, over two billion people worldwide rely on seafood consumption and sea products for their diet [ 1 ]. Alternatively, the ocean appears as a promising reservoir for novel pharmaceuticals [ 2 ], but simultaneously, novel energetic and mining resources [ 3 - 5 ]. However, oceanic ecosystems are today suffering from past but also novel, rapidly diversifying modern human activities.
We have different possibilities and tools to assess the impact of pollution on marine ecosystems. The ecotoxicological approaches are based on the use of biomonitors and biomarkers. They aim to study the effect of toxic chemicals on the biological organisms especially at the population, community and ecosystem levels. The ultimate goal of ecotoxicology is to be able to predict the effects of pollution so that the most efficient and effective action to prevent or remediate any detrimental effect. In order to assess the impact of anthropogenic activities on the aquatic ecosystem and to insure compliance with regulation or guidelines, we use biomonitoring. This kind of approach is based on the use of biological responses in order to assess anthropogenic changes in the environment. Biomonitoring involves the use of indicator species such as filter feeding mollusk bivalves.
Morado a. Parente b. Gomes a. The raised hypothesis is that Funil Reservoir acts as a filter for the xenobiotics of the PSR waters, improving river water quality downstream the dam. Two biomarkers, the ethoxyresorufin— O —deethylase activity EROD , measured as fluorimetricly in S9 hepatic fraction, and the micronuclei frequency MN , observed in erythrocytes of the cytoplasm, and three bioindicators, the hepatosomatic index HSI , gonadosomatic index GSI and condition factor CF were used in Pimelodus maculatus, a fish species widely distributed in the system. Four zones were searched through a longitudinal gradient: 1, river upstream from the reservoir; 2, upper reservoir; 3, lower reservoir; 4, river downstream of the reservoir.
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