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Flat Slab:- The flat slab is a reinforced concrete slab supported directly by concrete columns or … Conventional Slab:- The slab which is supported on Beams and columns is called a conventional … Hollow core ribbed Slab or Hollow core slab:- Hollowcore ribbed slabs derive their name from the … Hardy Slab:- Hardy slabs are generally seen in Dubai and China. Hardy slab is constructed by hardy … Waffle Slab:- Waffle slab is a reinforced concrete roof or floor containing square grids with deep … Dome Slab:- This kind of slab is generally constructed in temples, Mosques, palaces etc.

Tension structures: form and behaviour

A tensile structure is a construction of elements carrying only tension and no compression or bending. The term tensile should not be confused with tensegrity , which is a structural form with both tension and compression elements. Tensile structures are the most common type of thin-shell structures.

Most tensile structures are supported by some form of compression or bending elements, such as masts as in The O 2 , formerly the Millennium Dome , compression rings or beams. A tensile membrane structure is most often used as a roof , as they can economically and attractively span large distances.

Tensile membrane structures may also be used as complete buildings, with a few common applications being sports facilities, warehousing and storage buildings, and exhibition venues. This form of construction has only become more rigorously analyzed and widespread in large structures in the latter part of the twentieth century. Tensile structures have long been used in tents , where the guy ropes and tent poles provide pre-tension to the fabric and allow it to withstand loads.

Russian engineer Vladimir Shukhov was one of the first to develop practical calculations of stresses and deformations of tensile structures, shells and membranes. Shukhov designed eight tensile structures and thin-shell structures exhibition pavilions for the Nizhny Novgorod Fair of , covering the area of 27, square meters. A more recent large-scale use of a membrane-covered tensile structure is the Sidney Myer Music Bowl , constructed in Antonio Gaudi used the concept in reverse to create a compression-only structure for the Colonia Guell Church.

He created a hanging tensile model of the church to calculate the compression forces and to experimentally determine the column and vault geometries.

The concept was later championed by German architect and engineer Frei Otto , whose first use of the idea was in the construction of the West German pavilion at Expo 67 in Montreal. Steady technological progress has increased the popularity of fabric-roofed structures. The low weight of the materials makes construction easier and cheaper than standard designs, especially when vast open spaces have to be covered.

These are woven materials with different strengths in different directions. The warp fibers those fibers which are originally straight—equivalent to the starting fibers on a loom can carry greater load than the weft or fill fibers, which are woven between the warp fibers.

Other structures make use of ETFE film, either as single layer or in cushion form which can be inflated, to provide good insulation properties or for aesthetic effect—as on the Allianz Arena in Munich. ETFE cushions can also be etched with patterns in order to let different levels of light through when inflated to different levels.

In daylight, fabric membrane translucency offers soft diffused naturally lit spaces, while at night, artificial lighting can be used to create an ambient exterior luminescence.

They are most often supported by a structural frame as they cannot derive their strength from double curvature. Cables can be of mild steel , high strength steel drawn carbon steel , stainless steel , polyester or aramid fibres. Structural cables are made of a series of small strands twisted or bound together to form a much larger cable. Steel cables are either spiral strand, where circular rods are twisted together and "glued" using a polymer, or locked coil strand, where individual interlocking steel strands form the cable often with a spiral strand core.

Spiral strand is slightly weaker than locked coil strand. The properties of the individuals strands of different materials are shown in the table below, where UTS is ultimate tensile strength , or the breaking load:. Air-supported structures are a form of tensile structures where the fabric envelope is supported by pressurised air only.

The majority of fabric structures derive their strength from their doubly curved shape. By forcing the fabric to take on double-curvature the fabric gains sufficient stiffness to withstand the loads it is subjected to for example wind and snow loads. In order to induce an adequately doubly curved form it is most often necessary to pretension or prestress the fabric or its supporting structure.

The behaviour of structures which depend upon prestress to attain their strength is non-linear, so anything other than a very simple cable has, until the s, been very difficult to design.

The most common way to design doubly curved fabric structures was to construct scale models of the final buildings in order to understand their behaviour and to conduct form-finding exercises. Such scale models often employed stocking material or tights, or soap film, as they behave in a very similar way to structural fabrics they cannot carry shear. Soap films have uniform stress in every direction and require a closed boundary to form.

They naturally form a minimal surface—the form with minimal area and embodying minimal energy. They are however very difficult to measure. For a large film, its weight can seriously affect its form.

Lines of principal curvature have no twist and intersect other lines of principal curvature at right angles. A geodesic or geodetic line is usually the shortest line between two points on the surface. These lines are typically used when defining the cutting pattern seam-lines. This is due to their relative straightness after the planar cloths have been generated, resulting in lower cloth wastage and closer alignment with the fabric weave.

It is now possible to use powerful non-linear numerical analysis programs or finite element analysis to formfind and design fabric and cable structures. The programs must allow for large deflections. It is important that the final form will not allow ponding of water, as this can deform the membrane and lead to local failure or progressive failure of the entire structure.

Snow loading can be a serious problem for membrane structure, as the snow often will not flow off the structure as water will. For example, this has in the past caused the temporary collapse of the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome , an air-inflated structure in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Some structures prone to ponding use heating to melt snow which settles on them.

There are many different doubly curved forms, many of which have special mathematical properties. The most basic doubly curved from is the saddle shape, which can be a hyperbolic paraboloid not all saddle shapes are hyperbolic paraboloids.

This is a double ruled surface and is often used in both in lightweight shell structures see hyperboloid structures. True ruled surfaces are rarely found in tensile structures. Other forms are anticlastic saddles, various radial, conical tent forms and any combination of them.

Pretension is tension artificially induced in the structural elements in addition to any self-weight or imposed loads they may carry. It is used to ensure that the normally very flexible structural elements remain stiff under all possible loads.

A day to day example of pretension is a shelving unit supported by wires running from floor to ceiling. The wires hold the shelves in place because they are tensioned — if the wires were slack the system would not work. Pretension can be applied to a membrane by stretching it from its edges or by pretensioning cables which support it and hence changing its shape.

The level of pretension applied determines the shape of a membrane structure. The alternative approximated approach to the form-finding problem solution is based on the total energy balance of a grid-nodal system. A uniformly loaded cable spanning between two supports forms a curve intermediate between a catenary curve and a parabola. The simplifying assumption can be made that it approximates a circular arc of radius R.

The fundamental natural frequency , f 1 of tensioned cables is given by:. The roof tensile structures by Frei Otto of the Olympiapark , Munich. Denver International Airport terminal. Georgia Dome in Atlanta.

Daytime computer render of Khan Shatyr Entertainment Center , the highest tensile structure in the world. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article includes a list of general references , but it remains largely unverified because it lacks sufficient corresponding inline citations.

Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Retrieved Army Technology. Categories : Tensile architecture Tensile membrane structures Structural system Roofs Russian inventions. Hidden categories: Articles lacking in-text citations from September All articles lacking in-text citations All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from April Commons category link is on Wikidata.

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Tension structures: form and behaviour

To develop an enthusiastic and creative approach to the solution of design problems in lightweight structures. Skills: Ability to apply CAD methods to the conceptual design of lightweight structures, and to understand the theoretical basis for these methods. An ability to develop practical design details for lightweight structures. Content: Characteristics, behaviour and analytical methods for funicular cable structures subject to uniform and non-uniform loadings. Effects of elastic extension, temperature effects, support settlements and cable slip. Matrix methods for geometric and material non-linear cable and membrane structures.


Tension Structures: Form and behaviour, Second edition and cable structures, suspension bridge cables, and rigid structural forms, such as arches and shells.


Computational methods for tension-loaded structures

A tensile structure is a construction of elements carrying only tension and no compression or bending. The term tensile should not be confused with tensegrity , which is a structural form with both tension and compression elements. Tensile structures are the most common type of thin-shell structures. Most tensile structures are supported by some form of compression or bending elements, such as masts as in The O 2 , formerly the Millennium Dome , compression rings or beams.

Discusses tension structures that are predominantly roofing forms, created from pre-stressed cable nets, cable trusses and continuous membranes. This book discusses the role of stable minimal surfaces, in finding optimal shapes of membrane and cable structures. It also presents numerical modelling of the structural form. Read more

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Design of a tension fabric structure with analogy to nature

Second edition of 'Tension Structures' book due to come out in View project. The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file. Tension Structures Form and Behaviour.

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This paper deals with tension loaded structures made of coated woven fabric, cables and rigid frames such as mats and hoops. It describes in details a general framework for modelling and numerical simulation of their mechanical behavior. Several methods, developped in these last decades, are presented and compared. The principal particularity of these structures is that they derive their stiffness and their stability from the surface geometry and tensile stress field coupling. This particularity is combined with nonlinearities which can be due to possible large deflections, material law behavior and local instabilities due to wrinkling effects. In addition, a great number of design parameters must be taken into account in order to optimize the mechanical behavior of the structure.

Tension Structures, Second edition delivers a unique coverage of the topic of tension structures ranging from a variety of pre-stressed cable net and fabric roofing forms to suspension bridge cables. The emphasis is on finding minimum energy forms of these structures by analogy to nature. As a permanent fixture of modern architecture, tension structures demonstrate their potential for creating aesthetically pleasing art forms and offer wonderful design opportunities that arise from their ability to span large distances with elegance and structural efficiency. Tension Structures, Second edition compiles a vast amount of knowledge while providing an accessible entry to a rather specialised field. The mathematical expositions are set at an undergraduate level and, wherever possible, non-mathematical language is used to aid the understanding of fundamental concepts. The book will be of interest to researchers studying tension structures, engineering and architectural students, practising civil and structural engineers, architects, and scientists developing computational methodologies for non-linear problems in areas other than civil engineering.

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Когда толпа приблизилась к мощным каменным стенам почти вплотную, Беккер снова попытался вырваться, но течение стало еще более интенсивным. Трепет ожидания, волны, сносившие его то влево, то вправо, закрытые глаза, почти беззвучное движение губ в молитве. Он попытался вернуться назад, но совладать с мощным потоком было невозможно - все равно как плыть против сильного течения могучей реки. Беккер обернулся.

То, что она увидела, казалось неправдоподобным. Половина лица Хейла была залита кровью, на ковре расплылось темное пятно. Сьюзан отпрянула.

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Беккер поднял. Дверцы автобуса открылись, но из него никто не вышел.

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