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Murch - In the Blink of an Eye

Words popularity by usage frequency rank word second flash minute moment instant beat pulse flashing blink wink flare heartbeat newsflash blinking fanfare jiffy trice twinkling winking pulsation newsbreak ostentation flashbulb flashgun photoflash.

Select another language:. Powered by CITE. Are we missing a good synonym for blink of an eye? Add it Here! The fingerspelling provided here is most commonly used for proper names of people and places; it is also used in some languages for concepts for which no sign is available at that moment.

There are obviously specific signs for many words available in sign language that are more appropriate for daily usage. Get instant synonyms for any word that hits you anywhere on the web!

Previous studies have shown that eye gaze changes and simple mouth movements can elicit robust neural responses, which can be altered as a function of potential social significance.

Eye blinks are frequent events and are usually not deliberately communicative, yet blink rate is known to influence social perception. Here, we studied event-related potentials ERPs elicited to observing non-task relevant blinks, eye closure, and eye gaze changes in a centrally presented natural face stimulus.

Our first hypothesis H1 that blinks would produce robust ERPs N and later ERP components was validated, suggesting that the brain may register and process all types of eye movement for potential social relevance. We also predicted an amplitude gradient for ERPs as a function of gaze change, relative to eye closure and then blinks H2. H2 was only partly validated: large temporo-occipital Ns to all eye change conditions were observed and did not significantly differ between blinks and other conditions.

However, blinks elicited late ERPs that, although robust, were significantly smaller relative to gaze conditions. Our data indicate that small and task-irrelevant facial movements such as blinks are measurably registered by the observer's brain. This finding is suggestive of the potential social significance of blinks which, in turn, has implications for the study of social cognition and use of real-life social scenarios. In real-life, spontaneous blinks in humans typically occur on average 20—50 times a minute Bentivoglio et al.

The considerable variation in spontaneous blinking occurs because blinking serves a number of very important non-social functions. Blinking protects the corneal surface by allowing it to be remoistened and cleaned, and will vary with individual characteristics of the tear-film or whether an individual wears contact lenses or not Ousler et al.

Blinking can also function as a defensive reflex action that not only protects the corneal surface from incoming particles and potential physical injury, but is also elicited by startle Pearce, Aside from these protective mechanisms for the cornea, changes in blinking behavior have been shown to occur as a function of non-ocular factors. For example, decreases in blink rates have been associated with memory operations, thinking, and attentive behaviors Holland and Tarlow, ; Hirokawa, et al.

It is well-known that in a number of neurological disorders, such as schizophrenia, Tourette's syndrome, Parkinson's disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy, patients have been reported to show increased blink rates that are thought to be associated with aberrant changes to dopaminergic systems in the brain Chan and Chen, ; Karson, et al. Hence, from a social cognitive point of view, blink rates have the potential to give clues about someone else's inner mental life, or indeed their psychiatric well-being.

Therefore, being aware of another's blinks as well as other non-verbal behaviors might provide information that might be useful during a social interaction. Thus far, virtually no attention has been paid to the neural consequences of observed blinks. Intuitively, it would seem that we do not notice every time someone blinks, yet we do notice when someone does not blink, or blinks very frequently.

This suggests that at some level the brain does monitor the blinks of others Omori et al. In addition, political candidates with low blink rates are rated less favorably than those with normal blink frequencies Patterson et al. Reduced blink rate has also been linked with deception, such that criminals who lied under interrogation had lower blink rates than those who told the truth, as verified by forensic and witness evidence Mann et al.

Another study found that blink rate decreased during lying but increased considerably immediately following the lie Leal and Vrij, The relationship of blink rate and lying may be linked to cognitive demand as it has been shown that higher demand results in less frequent blinking Drew, , followed by an increase or flutter when the demand is lifted Holland and Tarlow, Overall, these studies suggest that observed blinks may have social importance and can influence higher-order processes such as making judgments about mental states or forming impressions about others.

Changes in gaze are known to elicit reliable neural responses, even when the stimulus has no overt social significance Puce et al. The elicited event-related potentials ERPs mainly consist of an N component that can vary its amplitude as a function of whether gaze is direct or averted Puce et al.

Previous studies using static faces have shown significantly greater N and later ERP amplitudes for stimuli with emotional or social meaning including depictions of intense emotion and personally familiar faces compared with neutral expressions or unfamiliar persons Caharel et al.

Here we recorded neural responses elicited to viewing blinks and eye movements of other individuals. Specifically, we studied viewing eye blinks, eye closure, as well as upward and leftward gaze shifts [in previous studies no differences to viewing right and leftward gaze had been observed Puce et al.

As in a naturalistic situation, the blink had an extremely short duration, whereas all other eye movement conditions including eye closure were longer and matched in duration. We formulated two hypotheses relating to the ERP results of the study:.

That N and later ERP components elicited to blinks would be robust and reliable. If this prediction were to be true, it would suggest that the brain can register and process all types of eye changes for potential social relevance. That there would be a graded change in N and later ERP amplitude as a function of condition in the following order: averted eyes leftward or upward , eye closure, blinks. Larger and earlier Ns and subsequent ERPs would be seen in the former conditions as they are more likely to signal social or attentional significance than the latter.

We did not expect to observe any differences in P amplitudes or latency across conditions, based on literature indicating that this ERP component is modulated by stimulus attributes such as contrast, luminance, and spatial frequency, and does not systematically vary as a function of facial attributes or movement in particular, see a discussion of this issue in Rossion and Caharel, Handedness was confirmed using the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory mean handedness quotient of 88R.

All participants had normal or corrected-to-normal hearing and vision and reported no previous history of neuropsychiatric disorders. ERP data from an additional four participants were collected, but were excluded due to excessive and persistent movement or blink artifacts. Informed consent was acquired for the experiment, as approved by the Institutional Review Board of West Virginia University.

Stimuli consisted of gray scale video clips of a full-on face with a neutral expression and eyes looking directly at the observer. The direct gaze face was present for the entire experimental run see also Puce et al.

Both faces were unfamiliar to all participants. To encourage participants to maintain their attention on the stimulus display, an additional target detection condition was included. Participants were required to detect a transparent checkerboard pattern briefly superimposed on the direct gaze face target stimulus and make a button press response each time it appeared. There were a total of 40 trials for each eye movement condition, as well as 40 target trials half of these occurred with the female face, the other half with the male face.

Examples of apparent motion face stimulus conditions. Display changes were embedded within a continuously present Baseline condition, and these task irrelevant gaze changes were Blink, Eye Closure, Upward, Leftward. A checkerboard pattern superimposed upon the baseline condition face was presented infrequently and served as the Target stimulus.

The resulting display produced an apparent motion effect where the eyes on the face were altered across the various conditions which each had a ms duration, with the exception of the Blink whose duration was 33 ms. The example depicts the female face. A male face was also used in the experiment. To maintain consistent stimulus timing, target duration superimposed checkerboard pattern was also equal to the duration of the presented eye change stimulus.

Although there were only three video frame changes from direct gaze to eye change back to direct gaze in this apparent motion stimulus, as in a previous study Puce et al. The two eyes in each face subtended a visual angle of 3. Stimulus condition order was randomized across trials. Each participant was tested individually in a quiet, dimly lit room, while seated in an armchair.

Visual stimuli were projected onto a white screen in front of the participant rather than viewed from a computer monitor to improve visibility of the facial movements and make the face seem more realistic projected dimensions were approximately life size. Each participant completed two experiments in one ERP session in randomized order.

Participants were given a short rest period several minutes between experiments. The second experiment had an unrelated purpose and will not be reported here. Before the experiment, participants were instructed to minimize their own eye and face movements, to keep their gaze centered on the bridge of the nose of the stimulus face, and to press the response button to targets as quickly and accurately as possible.

A continuous EEG recording was made during each experimental run and included a digital time stamp to indicate the onset of each stimulus condition.

At the completion of the recording session, electrode locations were digitized with a Polhemus 3 Space Fastrak digitizer see Appendix. A semi-automated artifact detection routine identified participant eye blinks in segmented EEG epochs, and data were also visually inspected for additional electromyographic artifacts. Artifactual EEG epochs were excluded from subsequent analyses.

An average of There were no significant differences in artifact removal between conditions average for viewing Blink ERPs elicited in response to target stimuli were excluded from further analyses. The averaged ERPs for each participant were used to create grand average ERPs for each stimulus type across the participant group.

Potential latency ranges for a subsequent semi-automated peak identification analysis were defined for each ERP component from the grand averaged ERPs waveforms. Peak latencies and amplitudes for all stimulus types in individual participants and grand averaged ERPs were identified within those pre-selected time intervals.

From the average ERPs of each individual participant, ERP component peak latency, and amplitude measures were calculated for each condition. Topographical voltage maps and Laplacians second spatial derivative of the voltage map; Puce et al. Based on inspection of topographic voltage maps, clusters of electrodes were selected whose mean ERP amplitude and latency values were calculated for P, N, and amplitudes for later ERP components. Participants indicated by keyboard press when they detected a transparent black and white checkerboard overlaid on the direct gaze face.

The mean reaction time for target detection was All eye change conditions, including the viewed eye blink, produced a robust ERP complex consisting of a P and N seen mainly at temporo-occipital electrodes e. We discuss each ERP component below. Toggle navigation Tinman. Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device. This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats.

Facial movements have the potential to be powerful social signals. Search books.

In the blink of an eye

By Peter Coghlan. As a soldier, Peter Coghlan faced bombs, bullying, murderous mobs and the lymphatic cancer which ended his career. But nothing could prepare him for his most gruelling battle of all. Then, out of the blue, tragedy struck; Pete suffered a massive brain stem stroke resulting in Locked-In Syndrome and near-total paralysis. Imprisoned in his own body, unable to move or speak, Pete remembers the wild days of his youth, his trials in the army, and his shattered dreams. At least he can blink. Yet In the Blink of an Eye is never less than inspirational.

Murch, Walter. In the Blink of an Eye. A Perspective on Film Editing. 2nd Edition. Press Page 2. Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7.

In the Blink of an Eye: How Vision Sparked the Big Bang of Evolution

List of ebooks and manuels about In the blink of an eye revised 2nd edition torrent. The bLINK is now in pairing mode. She startles. Where did that come from?

There are more than sample data in the database.

10 Best Filmmaking Books to Read in 2021

Never again will you think about thinking the same way. Buy from Amazon. Malcolm Gladwell redefined how we understand the world around us. Now, in Blink, he revolutionizes the way we understand the world within. Why are some people brilliant decision makers, while others are consistently inept? Why do some people follow their instincts and win, while others end up stumbling into error?

So, now you seek some great filmmaking books to push your skills to the next level. This is by far the most important book on this list for practical use. Every serious producer owns this book.

Download PDF - If you are author or own the copyright of this book, please report to us by using this​.

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As ophthalmologists, we know the impact vision has on the quality of our lives. However, until we read In the Blink of an Eye , we had no idea how important vision was to the development of life itself. Dr Parker first explains the what of the Cambrian explosion. The 38 animal phyla on Earth today basically existed way back in the Pre-Cambrian. The Cambrian explosion took those 38 internal body plans out of their plain, brown, worm-like wrappers and dressed them up in an array of hard external body parts: spines, armor, and murderous, piercing jaws.

Words popularity by usage frequency rank word second flash minute moment instant beat pulse flashing blink wink flare heartbeat newsflash blinking fanfare jiffy trice twinkling winking pulsation newsbreak ostentation flashbulb flashgun photoflash. Select another language:. Powered by CITE. Are we missing a good synonym for blink of an eye? Add it Here! The fingerspelling provided here is most commonly used for proper names of people and places; it is also used in some languages for concepts for which no sign is available at that moment.

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The bLINK is now in pairing mode. She startles. Where did that come from? Her view of the hallway.

 - Нужно найти ключ Хейла. Сьюзан замолчала. Коммандер, как всегда, прав. Им необходим ключ, который хранится у Хейла.

Беккер поднялся над безжизненным телом девушки. Шаги приближались. Он услышал дыхание.

Сьюзан представила себе газетный заголовок: КРИПТОГРАФ ГРЕГ ХЕЙЛ РАСКРЫВАЕТ СЕКРЕТНЫЙ ПЛАН ПРАВИТЕЛЬСТВА ВЗЯТЬ ПОД КОНТРОЛЬ ГЛОБАЛЬНУЮ ИНФОРМАЦИЮ. Что же, это очередной Попрыгунчик. Вторично разоблачив попытку АНБ пристроить к алгоритму черный ход, Грег Хейл превратится в мировую знаменитость. И одновременно пустит АНБ ко дну.

 Джабба, - проворковала женщина в ответ.  - Это Мидж. - Королева информации! - приветствовал ее толстяк.

Беккер нахмурился. - Я вовсе не хочу с ней переспать. Мне нужно с ней поговорить. Ты можешь помочь мне ее найти. Парень поставил бутылку на стол.

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